Mapping India’s International Relations Journey-
India is a rising power with a long history of foreign policy. In recent decades, it has become more assertive, playing a leading role in regional and global issues. Key trends include its growing engagement with the US, China, and regional organizations, as well as its efforts to counter terrorism and climate change.
This journey can be examined in the following phases-
1. NON ALIGNMENT PHASE(1947-1991):-The non-alignment phase in India’s international relations was a period from 1947 to 1991, when India sought to avoid getting involved in the Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union. India was a founding member of the Non-Aligned Movement, a group of countries that were not aligned with either superpower.
These idealistic policies were influenced by the ideas of Mahatma Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru, India’s first prime minister. Gandhi was a proponent of nonviolence and peaceful resistance, and Nehru was a strong believer in international cooperation.
2.Blind trust in china, leading Indo-China war
The end of the idealistic phase in India’s foreign policy came in 1962, after the Sino-Indian War. The war was a major setback for India, and it led to a decline in India’s idealistic politics
1962 TO 1991)
In the aftermath of the war, India adopted a more pragmatic approach to foreign policy. This approach was based on the following principles:
Security: India’s primary focus was on
its security, and it took steps to strengthen its military capabilities.
Realism: India recognized that the world was a complex and dangerous place, and it was willing to make pragmatic choices in order to protect its interests.
Flexibility: India was willing to adjust its foreign policy to changing circumstances.
1.Indo-Soviet Treaty 1971
2.Indo pak war and liberation of
3.India’s nuclear program- 1974
These are just a few examples of India’s pragmatic politics from 1962 to 1991. This period was marked by a number of challenges, but India was able to
navigate these challenges successfully and emerge as a stronger and more confident nation.
MULTI-ALIGNMENT PHASE AND NEW ECONOMIC POLICY POST DISINTEGRATION OF USSR(AFTER 1991 TO 2014)
ACTIVE ENGAGEMENT(1991 TO 2008 (ECONOMICAL CRISIS))
India’s engagement from 1991 to 2008 was marked by significant policy shifts and developments.Examples –
1991-The economic reforms of 1991saw the liberalization of trade, reduction of industrial licensing, and encouragement of foreign direct investment (FDI).
Southeast Asian countries, such as Vietnam and Singapore, expanded significantly during this period.
advocating for its interests in global trade.
PROTECTIONISM(2008 TO 2014)
address environmental challenges.
DEHYPHENATION PHASE AND INTEREST-BASED REALISTIC INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS (POST 2014 TILL NOW)
PRE PANDEMIC(2014 to 2020)
1.”Dehyphenation” in the context of Indian foreign policy refers to the deliberate effort to separate and pursue relationships with different countries or regions independently, rather than allowing one relationship to dominate or define India’s interactions with another.Examples-
RUSSIA-JAPAN with USA and JAPAN
Cooperation Organisation(SCO) Since both the groups consists diplomatic rivals.
2.India’s interest-based realistic foreign policy is a foreign policy approach that is based on the country’s national interests.Example-
3.NEIGHBOUR FIRST AND ACT EAST
POLICY:- “Neighbourhood First” policy is India’s foreign policy approach that prioritizes fostering strong and cooperative relationships with its immediate neighboring countries.Example –
4.Act East Policy:The “Act East” policy, an evolution of the previous “Look East” policy, seeks to enhance India’s engagement with countries in Southeast Asia and the broader Asia-Pacific region.Example-
POST PANDEMIC (2020 to
1.INDIA BEING A VOICE OF
GLOBAL SOUTH-The Global South
refers to a group of developing and less-developed countries that share common economic, political, and social challenges. India has used its position to raise issues, advocate for reforms, and champion the interests of these countries.Example-
2.INDIA BEING THE BIG
BROTHER IN INDO-PACIFIC:-
India has been viewed as a potential “Big Brother” due to its strategic and geopolitical position. Example –
GREATER MALE project in Maldives
India’s participation in the East Asia
Summit, strengthening ties with
In conclusion, India’s current international relations reflect a multifaceted approach guided by pragmatism, strategic interests, and a commitment to global engagement. India’s focus on bolstering economic ties, strengthening partnerships with major powers, and enhancing regional stability underscores its role as a significant player on the global stage.