Rajasthan Day 2022
Why in News
• Rajasthan Day or Rajasthan Foundation Day is celebrated on 30 March every year.
• This is the 72nd foundation day of Rajasthan being celebrated. On this day, the bravery, strong will and sacrifice of the people of Rajasthan are bowed down.
• Many festivals and events are held on this day, in which the unique culture of Rajasthan is seen. Rajasthan means “place of kings”.
• Rajasthan is surrounded by Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana and Punjab. Rajasthan is the largest state of India in terms of area.
Purpose of Rajasthan Day
• The main objective of celebrating Rajasthan Day is to make people aware about the heritage of Rajasthan and to tell its importance as well as to save its heritage.
• The merger of the princely states of Jodhpur, Jaipur, Jaisalmer and Bikaner took place on 30 March 1949 to form the ‘Greater Rajasthan Union’. This is considered to be the day of establishment of Rajasthan.
Who was the first ruler of Rajasthan?
• The first historical ruler of Rajasthan was Raja Vasudev of Chahamana.
• This region is known as Matsya State. By the way, the first ruler was Chandragupta Maurya. He founded the Maurya dynasty. His empire was from the border of Afghanistan and Persia to the whole of India.
History of Rajasthan
• The existence of Rajasthan is found from prehistoric times. From time to time, the Chauhan, Gehlot clans of Mewar have ruled here.
• Jaipur, Bundi, Mewar, Marwar, Kota, Bharatpur and Alwar used to be big princely states. All these princely states accepted the suzerainty of British rule.
• After independence, when the princely states started to merge, the great princely states like Jodhpur, Bikaner, Jaipur and Jaisalmer were merged to form Greater Rajasthan.
• In the year 1958, the present state of Rajasthan officially came into existence. At that time Ajmer, Abu Road taluka and Sunal Tapa princely states also merged with Rajasthan.
• Most of the Thar Desert lies in Rajasthan. Some part of it is found in Haryana, Punjab and Gujarat till the Rann of Kutch.
• The Thar Desert extends to the Sindh province of Pakistan and also to some parts of Pakistani Punjab. Camel safaris are very popular here for tourists.
Rajasthani folk dance is famous
• There are many forms of folk dances in Rajasthan, which are attractive, skillful and fun. Rajasthani folk dance is popular all over the world.
• Ghoomar dance from Udaipur and Kalbelia dance of Jaisalmer have gained international fame.
• Chang, Terhtali, Puppet, Ghind etc. are examples of traditional Rajasthani culture. Puppetry, Ghoomar, Kalbelia dances attract tourists.
• Importance of Rajasthan Day
• Many important programs are organized by the Rajasthan Tourism Department on this day.
• The best event is organized in Jaipur.
• Jaipur is also known as the Pink City. The folk dance of Rajasthan ‘Ghoomar’ is organized on this day.
GS PAPER II
Assam and Meghalaya border dispute
Why in News
• The border dispute between Assam and Meghalaya for 50 years has been resolved.
• The Chief Minister of both the states signed the agreement on 29 March 2022 in the presence of Union Home Minister Amit Shah. There is a border dispute between Assam and Meghalaya at 12 places.
• In the first phase, 6 disputed border sites have been resolved, while in the second phase, the remaining 6 places will be signed soon.
• Amit Shah has described this agreement as historic. During this, Union Home Minister Amit Shah said that 70 percent of the border dispute of both the states has become free from today.
• The Chief Minister of both the states said that we will resolve the further dispute through talks.
• As per the proposed recommendations, Assam will give 18.51 sq km of land of 36.79 sq km and the remaining 18.28 sq km to Meghalaya.
• The governments of Assam and Meghalaya came out with a settlement proposal to resolve their border disputes in 06 of the 12 inter-regional areas with a border of 884 km.
Border dispute between Assam and Meghalaya
• Meghalaya was carved out of Assam in 1972 and challenged the Assam Reorganization Act, 1971.
• This led to disputes relating to 12 areas in different parts of the shared 884.9 km long border. Many times border disputes have erupted between the two states.
• In a similar incident in 2010, four people were killed in police firing in Langpih.
• After the formation of the new state, there were many disputes regarding the demarcation of the boundaries in the initial agreement. Violence has also come to the fore from both sides over the disputed borders of Mizoram, Nagaland and Arunachal Pradesh with Assam.
• On July 26 last year, six Assam Police personnel were killed and around 100 civilians and security personnel from the two neighboring states were injured in the worst-ever violence along the Assam-Mizoram border.
• The final settlement between Assam and Meghalaya is important, as the border dispute between the two states has been pending for a very long time.
• The border dispute between the two states is so deep that Assam was accused of setting up police posts on the basis of its ancestral claims on these disputed areas.
• At the same time, Meghalaya had told the government residence of the then CM Tarun Gogoi, present on Koinadhora Hill in Guwahati, on its land.
GS PAPER II
Delhi State Legal Services Authority (DSLSA)
Why in News
• In a campaign to make legal aid more accessible to women, the National Commission for Women (NCWML) has launched a Legal Aid Clinic in association with the Delhi State Legal Services Authority (DSLSA).
• This clinic will act as a single-window facility for redressal of women’s grievances by providing free legal aid.
• National Commission for Women is planning to set up similar legal services clinics in other State Women’s Commissions also.
• The Legal Aid Clinic will operate at the Commission’s office in New Delhi.
• Any woman will be able to come to this clinic to get free legal advice and counseling facility where the empaneled advocates of DSLSA will help such women.
• The launch ceremony of the Legal Aid Clinic was held at the Commission’s office in New Delhi.
• The objective of this Law Help Center is to provide free consultation and legal services to women.
• The Legal Aid Clinic will focus on protecting the rights of women and providing them with one-stop centers for getting legal advice and assistance.
• Women will now be able to get legal aid without any hassle.
• Under the new legal aid clinic, counseling will be provided to walk-in complainants and women in distress will be counseled and informed about various schemes of National Legal Services Authority/ Delhi State Legal Services Authority.
• Other services include assistance in women’s public hearings, free legal aid, hearing in matrimonial matters and providing assistance regarding other complaints registered with the commission.
GS PAPER II
Why in News
• The Prime Minister, Shri Narendra Modi, today attended the 5th BIMSTEC (Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation) summit, hosted by Sri Lanka, which is currently the BIMSTEC Chairman, through a virtual medium.
• Prime Minister Modi while addressing at the BIMSTEC Summit said that India is ready to spend 3 million dollars to make BIMSTEC Center for Weather an active center. He said that everyone’s cooperation is necessary for this.
• PM Modi said in the 5th BIMSTEC summit that this is the 25th year of the establishment of BIMSTEC.
• Prime Minister Modi said that the recent developments in Europe have raised questions about the stability of the international order.
• PM Modi said that the recent developments in Europe have put a question mark on the stability of the international order.
• Prime Minister Modi also announced financial assistance during his address.
• PM Modi said that India will provide financial assistance of $ 1 million to increase the operational budget of the Secretariat for this important work to be completed on time and as expected.
• BIMSTEC conference organized
• Let us inform that this time BIMSTEC conference is being organized by Sri Lanka. Apart from India, BIMSTEC includes countries like Sri Lanka, Thailand, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Nepal and Bhutan.
• This time Sri Lanka is hosting the BIMSTEC summit as the chairman. The Prime Minister said that it is necessary to move forward on the BIMSTEC FTA proposal to increase mutual trade between BIMSTEC countries.
What did Prime Minister Narendra Modi say?
• Prime Minister Narendra Modi said in his address that this is the 25th year of the establishment of BIMSTEC. He said that the results of this landmark summit will write a golden chapter in the history of BIMSTEC.
• The Prime Minister said that President Rajapaksa has given efficient leadership to BIMSTEC in the challenging environment of the last two years. He said that we are still facing the ill effects of Corona.
• He said that it is necessary to make early progress on the proposal of BIMSTEC FTA to increase our mutual trade. We should also increase exchanges between entrepreneurs and startups of our countries.
• He said that the development of Europe in the last few weeks has raised questions on the stability of the international order, in this context it has become important to make BIMSTEC regional cooperation more active.
• Prime Minister Modi said that the time has come to make the Bay of Bengal a bridge for connectivity, prosperity and security. He said that I call upon all BIMSTEC countries to dedicate themselves to work with renewed vigor to achieve the goals achieved together in the year 1997.
What is BIMSTEC?
• Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC) is a regional organization of countries adjoining and adjoining the Bay of Bengal.
• Five of its seven members are from South Asia. These include Bangladesh, Bhutan, Nepal and Sri Lanka besides India, while Myanmar and Thailand are from Southeast Asia.
• The main objective of the organization is to create an environment for economic development, to promote progress in social and now health related issues and to promote cooperation on matters of common interest in the region.
• It has seven member countries – India, Bhutan, Nepal, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Myanmar and Thailand. At present Sri Lanka is the President of BIMSTEC.
GS PAPER III
Green hydrogen car
Why in News
• Union Minister for Road Transport and Highways Nitin Gadkari arrived in Parliament on 30 March 2022 in a Green Hydrogen Car.
• The name of this car is ‘Mirai’. Union Minister Nitin Gadkari says that the prices of petrol, diesel and gas are increasing continuously. India imports petrol and diesel and there is a lot of pollution from petrol and diesel.
• This is the first car of its kind in India, which will run on Green Hydrogen. Under the pilot project, Union Minister Nitin Gadkari reached Parliament House from his residence in a car on 30 March 2022.
• During this time this car running on clean fuel remained the center of attraction of the people. He had said that soon he would be seen riding a green energy car in the capital Delhi.
• Union Minister Nitin Gadkari said that this car is completely environment friendly and does not cause any kind of pollution.
• Gadkari said that this car is the future of India. He said that cars with petrol and diesel engines cause a lot of pollution, but hydro fuel cell cars do not cause any pollution at all.
• According to Union Minister Nitin Gadkari, this is an important initiative that will promote clean energy and environmental protection by reducing the dependence on fossil fuels and thus make India ‘Energy Self-reliant’ by the year 2047.
• Union Transport Minister announced Rs 3,000 crore mission for ‘Green Hydrogen’ production.
Green Hydrogen Car: At A Glance
• This car has been made under the pilot project of Toyota Company.
• Advance fuel cell has been installed in this car. This advanced cell generates electricity by mixing oxygen and hydrogen. The car runs on this electricity.
• Only water comes out of this car in the form of emissions. Green Hydrogen is efficient and environment friendly to make India’s energy sector self-reliant. Green hydrogen is made from water or organic waste.
• Toyota has developed a hydrogen based fuel cell system for this car.
• This is also an electric vehicle, which uses hydrogen to generate the necessary electricity to run.
• Hydrogen is supplied from its fuel tank to the Fuel Cell Stack.
• This car draws the oxygen present in the air all around. Then the chemical reaction of these two gases generates water (H2O) and electricity.
• Electricity is used to run the car, while water comes out of the silencer.
GS PAPER III
Why in discussion
• The third edition of the Indo-Uzbekistan joint military exercise “Exercise Dustlik” concluded on 29 March 2022 in Yangiarik, Uzbekistan.
• During the joint exercise, both the troops got an opportunity to receive training in counter-insurgency operations in semi-urban environment.
• The last two days of the exercise were devoted to the validation exercise, where both the troops jointly conducted simulated operations against extremist groups under the United Nations mandate.
• The exercise has been a huge success, covering a wide range of areas from cross training and combat conditioning in field conditions to sports and cultural exchange.
• “Maneuver Dustlik” will take forward the level of defense cooperation between the two armies and act as a catalyst in many such joint programs to further strengthen the traditional bonds of friendship between India and Uzbekistan in future.
GS PAPER III
Mega Energy Policy 2009
Why in News
• The Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs, chaired by the Prime Minister, today approved extension (36 months) of time limit for identification of 10 provisional mega certified projects for the purpose of submission of final mega certificates to the tax authorities.
• Extension of time period for submission of final mega certificate will enable developers to bid competitively for PPAs in future and get tax exemption as per policy conditions.
• The increased liquidity will boost the overall development of the country and ensure the restarting of various important power projects.
• The time period of 10 provisional mega projects which have been cleared/partially cleared for submission of final mega certificate to tax authorities has been extended to 156 months instead of 120 months from the date of import.
• During this extended period, in collaboration with the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) and Solar Energy Corporation of India Limited (SECI), fixed energy (a mix of unregulated renewable energy, harvesting and conventional energy) will be attracted and PPAs will be secured. These mega projects are expected to participate in such bids.
• The Ministry of Power will also develop an alternative based on the existing power markets during this period. It will also ensure that the benefits are passed on to the consumers in a competitive manner.
GS PAPER III
Target Zero Dumpsite
Why in News
• The way, in which the issues of cleanliness and sanitation are being taken hand-in-hand under the countrywide initiative of Swachh Bharat Mission, it is very remarkable.
• Swachh Bharat Mission-Urban 2.0 (SBM-U 2.0) was launched by Hon’ble Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi in October 2021; since then, it has completely changed the behavior of the people with regard to cleanliness.
• Garbage has taken the form of mountains of garbage accumulating in one place for a long time. Keeping this in mind, SBM-U 2.0 has targeted ‘Large Zero Dumpsite’ at the dump site so that it can be completed within the mission period.
• The country will move closer to the vision of the Mission for Waste-Free by disposing of old waste. It will also help in taking forward the principles of circular economy and the concept of resource restoration.
• Garbage dump sites have become a major problem in most cities. Greater Mumbai in Maharashtra has the largest amount of old garbage in the state.
• It has set a target to make about 355 acres of valuable land usable by disposing of 26 million metric tonnes of old waste.
• The Thane Municipal Corporation will dispose of 8.3 lakh metric tonnes of waste at the city’s dumpsite, while Mira-Bhayander plans to clean up about nine lakh metric tonnes of old waste to make several acres of costly land reusable.
• However, 28 urban local bodies in Maharashtra have submitted action plans to the central government for land reclamation of dump sites to dispose of old waste.
• To assist Maharashtra in efficient solid waste management, the Union Housing and Urban Affairs Ministry has sanctioned an amount of Rs 433.72 crore to 28 urban local bodies for disposal of 37 million metric tonnes of waste.
• States and cities across the country have recognized the need to rid old and dangerous dump sites of waste.
• Various cities are coming forward to seek assistance from the central government to fulfill the vision of a waste-free city.
• Considering this, the Central Government has approved the proposal for disposal of old waste in about 500 cities in states like Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Rajasthan, Odisha, Tamil Nadu, Delhi etc.
• Disposal of old waste will help improve the area, which is currently buried under a decades-old garbage dump.
• The Swachh Bharat Mission is continuously revamping sustainable waste management systems to ensure a scientific waste disposal approach to a ‘waste-free city’ and a waste-to-cycle economy.