Why in News
- Constitution Day of India is celebrated on 26 November. The Constituent Assembly adopted the Constitution on 26 November 1949.
- The Union Ministry of Social Justice notified the Centre’s decision to observe 26 November as Constitution Day in 2015 to promote constitutional values among citizens. This is the day when the Constituent Assembly of the country duly adopted the existing Constitution.
- It took a total of two years 11 months and 18 days to prepare the constitution in India. The main purpose of celebrating Constitution Day was its creator and the country’s first Law Minister, Dr. Tribute to Bhimrao Ambedkar.
- On the occasion of Constitution Day, we not only feel that we are citizens of independent India, but we get our rights from the fundamental rights mentioned in the constitution and also remind us of our responsibilities as citizens through written fundamental duties.
- The Indian Constitution was implemented on 26 January 1950. After this, on the occasion of 125th birthday of Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar, in the year 2015, 26 November was announced to be celebrated as Constitution Day. Since then Constitution Day is celebrated every year on 26 November.
- After the end of the British rule, India needed a law that could bring equality and unity among the people living in the country, different religions.
- In view of this, there was a demand for making a constitution among the freedom fighters. When the country was about to become independent, the demand for the formation of a Constituent Assembly started rising.
- Even before independence, there was talk of constitution making among freedom fighters. After independence a Constituent Assembly was formed. The first meeting of the Constituent Assembly was held on 09 December 1946 in the Central Hall of the Parliament House. Only 207 members attended the meeting that day.
- Earlier the Constituent Assembly had a total of 389 members, but after the partition of the country, the number of members of the assembly was reduced to 299 due to the absence of some princely states in the Constituent Assembly.
- The Indian Constitution is the longest written constitution in the world. Many parts of it are taken from the constitutions of the United Kingdom, America, Germany, Ireland, Australia, Canada and Japan.
- It describes the fundamental rights, duties, role of the government, powers of the Prime Minister, President, Governor and Chief Minister of the citizens of the country.
GS PAPER II
National milk day
Why in News
- National Milk Day is celebrated in our country on 26 November every year. This day is celebrated as the birthday of Dr. Verghese Kurien, the father of the White Revolution.
- National Milk Day is celebrated every year on 26 November in India. On this day Dr. Verghese is celebrated as Kurien’s birthday. He is also known as Milkman of India.
- Milk Day was first celebrated in India on 26 November 2014.
- This day Dr. It is celebrated in honor of Verghese Kurien who is considered as the father of White Revolution in India.
- Verghese Kurien was born on 26 November, due to which this day is celebrated as National Milk Day.
- Celebration of this day was started in the year 2001.
- All the dairy heads of the country including National Dairy Development Board (NDDB), Indian Dairy Association (IDA) along with 22 state level milk unions had fixed the day.
- World Milk Day is celebrated by the United Nations on 1 June every year.
- National Milk Day is celebrated to promote activities related to milk and milk industry and to create awareness among people about the importance of milk and milk products for life.
- This day is dedicated to the father of India’s White Revolution; Dr. It is celebrated to honor Verghese Kurien. It marks his birth anniversary.
- All Dairy Heads of India along with Dairy Federation of India resolved to observe National Milk Day on 26th November to pay tribute to Dr. Verghese Kurien in 2014.
- National Milk Day is celebrated with the aim of providing information about the need and importance of milk in human life.
Dr. Verghese Kurien
- Verghese Kurien is known as the ‘Father of White Revolution’ in India. He was a social entrepreneur. He led ‘Operation Flood’, the largest agricultural dairy development program across the world.
- He was instrumental in the establishment and success of the Amul brand. Amul paved the way for the dairy cooperative sector to flourish in Gujarat.
- This operation made India the world’s largest milk producer from a milk deficient country.
- This movement doubled the available milk per capita in almost 30 years and also increased the milk production four times.
- He was awarded Padma Shri in 1965, Padma Bhushan in 1966 and Padma Vibhushan in 1999 by the Government of India.
GS PAPER II
Why in News
- A new variant of the corona virus has been found in South Africa. And because of this, more than 100 people have been infected all over the country.
- After the appearance of this variant, the government of South Africa is conducting a large-scale search for people infected with this variant in collaboration with private laboratories. It is not yet known how dangerous it is.
- The Health Secretary, Government of India has issued instructions that all international travelers coming to India should be subjected to intensive corona examination. After the new variant surfaced, scientists have feared the rapid increase in Kovid infection globally.
- Scientists in South Africa said that they have detected a new variant of Kovid-19. There are very unusual changes in this variant called.
- These changes may allow the new variant to penetrate the immune system and make the virus more infectious. The beta variant first came to light last year in South Africa itself.
- South Africa has confirmed about 100 samples of the B.1.1.529 variant. Samples of this variant have also been found in Botswana and Hong Kong.
- Scientists say that 32 new mutants of the Botswana variant have become very dangerous. According to the report, the Botswana variant is fast spreading and vaccine resistant. Its spike protein has more mutations than any other variant.
- Scientists have warned that the scientific name of this variant is B.1.1529, which has the potential to make the situation worse than any other variant including the delta strain.
- The new variant was first identified in South Africa this week. It quickly spread to surrounding countries, including Botswana, where even fully vaccinated people became infected.
- Two cases of this variant have also been detected in Hong Kong – where passengers from parts of southern Africa were kept in separate rooms.
GS PAPER III
Use of Ashwagandha leaves in ASU medicines
Why in News
- Ministry of AYUSH has decided to re-examine the matter regarding use of Ashwagandha (Withania somniferal) leaves in ASU (Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani) medicines and constitute an expert group for the same.
- Earlier, the ministry had issued an advisory not to use Ashwagandha leaves in ASU medicines.
- Representations were received from ASU pharmaceutical manufacturing industry partners in view of the Ministry of AYUSH banning the use of Ashwagandha leaves.
- Also, the Ministry of AYUSH had invited stakeholders to discuss their concerns regarding the use of Ashwagandha leaves in ASU products. Based on this discussion, the Ministry has decided to re-examine the advisory issued to drug manufacturers to avoid the use of Ashwagandha (Withania somniferal) leaves.
- The Expert Group will make suitable recommendations to the Government of India on the use of Ashwagandha Leaves/Ashwagandha Almanac in ASU products based on scientific evidence.
Ashwagandha (Withania somniferal)
- Ashwagandha or Ashwagandha (Withania somniferal) is a plant (Kshup). It is a plant of the Vidania family; 10 species of Vidania are found in the world and 2 in India.
- Traditionally in India, Ashwagandha is used for Ayurvedic treatment.
- Along with this it is also grown as a cash crop. Ashwagandha got its name due to the smell of horse urine in its fresh leaves and roots.
- Plants of Vidania family in the world are found naturally in Spain, Morocco, Jordan, Egypt, Africa, Pakistan, India and Sri Lanka.
- In India, it is being cultivated in all areas up to an altitude of 1500 meters.
- Ashwagandha is being cultivated in the northwestern part of India, Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Punjab, Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh and Himachal Pradesh etc.
- Ashwagandha is being cultivated on a large scale in Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh. In the Shekhawati region of Rajasthan, it is called ‘Asganya’ or Padal Singh.
GS PAPER II
Why in News
- INS Vela, the fourth submarine in a series of six Project-75 submarines, was commissioned on 25 November 2021 in the presence of Navy Chief Admiral Karambir Singh.
- The formal commissioning ceremony took place at the Naval Dockyard, Mumbai. The Scorpene class submarines are being built in India by Mazagon Dock Shipbuilders Limited (MDL), Mumbai in collaboration with M/s Naval Group (earlier DCNS), France.
- The commissioning of this fourth submarine is a major achievement.
- INS Vela will be part of the Western Naval Command’s submarine fleet and will form another powerful part of its arsenal.
- Scorpene submarines are extremely powerful platforms, have advanced stealth characteristics and are equipped with long-range guided torpedoes as well as anti-ship missiles.
- These submarines are equipped with state-of-the-art sonar and sensor suites that provide excellent operational capabilities. The submarines also have an advanced permanent magnetic synchronous motor in the form of propulsion motor.
- The supply of Vela reaffirms the thrust of the Indian Navy towards consolidating its position as a ‘Builders Navy’ as well as the capabilities of MDL as a major ship and submarine manufacturing yard.
- The commissioning of the submarine is taking place at a time when ‘Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav’ and ‘Golden Victory Year’ celebrations are also being celebrated.