Daily Editorial Analysis for 16th June 2023

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Why in news?

  • The Philippines is experiencing heightened volcanic activity as Mount Mayon, the most active volcano in the archipelago, continues to erupt.

About the Mount Mayon

  • Mount Mayon is an active Stratovolcano located in the Philippines.
  • It is situated within the Pacific ring of fire region. This region is renowned for its high occurrence of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions, emphasizing the dynamic geological activity in the area.
  • As a composite volcano, it is characterized by its conical shape, formed by layers of hardened lava, tephra, pumice, and volcanic ash.
  • Mount Mayon serves as the centerpiece of the ALBAY biosphere reserve and natural park. This designation highlights the volcano’s significance as a protected area due to its ecological importance and biodiversity.


  • A stratovolcano, also known as a composite volcano, is a type of volcano characterized by its distinctive conical shape and built-up layers of hardened lava, tephra (fragmented volcanic material), pumice, and volcanic ash.

Here are some key features of stratovolcanoes:

  • Conical Shape: Stratovolcanoes have a steep-sided, symmetrical or slightly asymmetrical conical shape. This shape is formed by alternating layers of lava flows, pyroclastic materials, and volcanic ash.
  • Composite Structure: Stratovolcanoes are composed of different materials, including layers of solidified lava flows, volcanic ash, and volcanic debris. These layers are built up over time through repeated eruptions.
  • Explosive Eruptions: Stratovolcanoes are known for their explosive eruptions caused by the buildup of gas pressure within the magma chamber. These eruptions can be highly explosive and result in the ejection of ash, pyroclastic flows (hot volcanic debris), and volcanic bombs (large, ejected lava fragments).
  • Viscous Lava: The lava erupted from stratovolcanoes is often highly viscous, meaning it is thick and doesn’t flow easily. This high viscosity is due to its high silica content, which makes it more sticky and prone to trapping gas bubbles. This viscosity contributes to explosive eruptions.
  • Volcanic Hazards: Stratovolcanoes pose various hazards, including pyroclastic flows, lahars (mudflows caused by volcanic debris mixing with water), ash fall, volcanic gases, and volcanic bombs. These hazards can impact the surrounding areas, posing risks to human settlements, agriculture, and infrastructure.

Example: Mount Fuji in Japan, Mount Rainier in the United States, and Mount Vesuvius in Italy.


Tamil Nadu Government Revokes General Consent to CBI

Why in news?

  • The DMK-led government in Tamil Nadu has announced the withdrawal of the general consent previously granted

to the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI).

Tamil Nadu Government Rescinds General Consent for CBI Probes

  • Tamil Nadu Government Withdraws General Consent To Cbi To Probe Cases In  State The Tamil Nadu state government has taken the decision to withdraw the general consent granted to the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI).
  • The withdrawal of consent is in accordance with Section 6 of the Delhi Special Police Establishment Act, 1946.
  • CBI now requires prior permission from the state government before conducting any investigations within Tamil Nadu.

Section 6 of Delhi Special Police Establishment Act

  • Section 6 of the Delhi Special Police Establishment Act mandates that the CBI seeks prior permission from the respective state government before initiating any investigations.
  • The provision ensures the involvement and cooperation of the state government in law enforcement and criminal investigations.

What is General Consent ?

  • General consent, typically granted by states, enables the CBI to seamlessly investigate corruption cases involving central government employees within the state.
  • It provides the CBI the authority to initiate inquiries and probe allegations of corruption with the assumption that the state government has already granted permission.

Impact of Consent Withdrawal

  • With the withdrawal of general consent by the Tamil Nadu government, the CBI will now need explicit permission to conduct investigations or probes within the state.
  • The decision may have implications for future CBI investigations in Tamil Nadu and underscores the state government’s desire for greater control over such matters.

Historical Background of CBI (Central Bureau of Investigation)

  • The CBI traces its origins to the Special Police Establishment (SPE) established during World War II.
  • It was formalized as an agency of the Government of India through the Delhi Special Police Establishment (DSPE) Act, 1946.
  • The establishment of the CBI was recommended by the Santhanam Committee on Prevention of Corruption.

Investigative Jurisdiction

  • CBI is the nodal police agency in India for coordinating investigations on behalf of Interpol member countries.
  • It handles cases related to anti-corruption crimes, economic crimes, special crimes, and suo moto cases (in Union Territories).
  • For investigations in a state, the CBI requires the consent of the state government or orders from the Supreme Court or High Courts.

Appointment of CBI Director

  • The appointment of the CBI Director is now made through a committee comprising the Prime Minister, Leader of Opposition/Leader of the largest opposition party, and Chief Justice of India/Supreme Court Judge.
  • The Director holds a two-year tenure, extendable up to five years.

Challenges Faced by CBI

  • Political interference has been a significant challenge, affecting the agency’s autonomy and credibility.
  • Delayed investigations and mismanagement of prominent cases have raised concerns about the agency’s effectiveness.
  • Lack of public accountability due to exemption from the Right to Information Act is a point of criticism.
  • Limited powers, shortage of personnel, and restricted access hinder the CBI’s investigative capabilities.


  • The Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) serves as the vanguard against corruption, economic crimes, and special offenses in India. While it has achieved notable successes, it grapples with impediments such as undue political influence, protracted investigations, and jurisdictional constraints. To fortify the CBI’s prowess and bolster its integrity, proposed reforms encompass bolstering autonomy, augmenting resources, and enacting comprehensive legislation. These endeavors aim to fortify the agency’s effectiveness in combatting crime and upholding the principles of justice and the rule of law.


U.S. Military Access in Papua New Guinea

Why in news?

  • The United States military has been given unrestricted access to deploy forces from and develop key Papua New Guinea bases.

Defense Cooperation Agreement Expands U.S. Presence

  • Details of the Defense Cooperation Agreement (DCA) reveal unrestricted access for the United States military in Papua New Guinea.
  • Six ports and airports, including the Lombrum Naval Base and Port Moresby Jacksons International Airport, will be available for U.S. forces.
  • Access allows for various activities, such as training, maintenance, refueling, intelligence operations, staging, and humanitarian aid.

Exclusive Jurisdiction and Controversial Provisions

  • American personnel fall under exclusive U.S. criminal jurisdiction in Papua New Guinea, raising concerns among certain groups.
  • Papua New Guinea retains civil and administrative jurisdiction over U.S. personnel for acts outside official duties.

Increasing U.S. Engagement in the Pacific

  • The Biden administration has intensified U.S. engagement in the Pacific to address geopolitical competition.
  • China’s increasing influence in the region has led to efforts from traditional security providers to solidify their roles.

Way Forward

  • Overall, the Defense Cooperation Agreement between the United States and Papua New Guinea expands U.S. military presence, raises concerns about jurisdiction, and reflects efforts to counter China’s influence in the Pacific region. The evolving security environment necessitates careful consideration of bilateral agreements alongside regional frameworks.


Addition of 80 Castes to Central OBC List

Why in news?

  • Approximately 80 castes from Maharashtra, Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, and Haryana are being processed for addition to the Central List of Other Backward Classes (OBCs).


  • The National Commission for Backward Classes (NCBC) is examining most of the requests for inclusion.
  • The Union government has highlighted the addition of communities to the OBC list as one of its achievements under Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s leadership in the past nine years.
  • A recent report by the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment outlined the inclusion of 16 communities in the OBC list of Himachal Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, and Jammu and Kashmir.

States and Communities Requesting Inclusion

  • Telangana has requested the addition of around 40 communities from its State OBC list to the Central list.
  • Andhra Pradesh seeks the inclusion of the Turup Kapu community, while Himachal Pradesh has requested the addition of the Majhra community.
  • Maharashtra has put forward the Lodhi, Lingayat, Bhoyar Pawar, and Jhandse communities for inclusion in the Central OBC list.
  • Punjab has requested the inclusion of the Yadav community, and Haryana seeks the addition of the Gosai/Gosain community.

NCBC (National Commission for Backward Classes) Examination and Cabinet Recommendation

  • The NCBC is obligated to examine the requests and has begun the processing, expecting most of them to be approved.
  • Once decisions are made, the NCBC can send recommendations to the Cabinet for further action.
  • Procedure for Addition and Government’s Constitutional Amendment:
  • The NCBC Act, 1993 prescribes the procedure for adding communities to the Central OBC list, which involves examining proposals and forwarding decisions to the Union government for approval.
  • The government highlights the 105th Amendment to the Constitution, which reaffirms states’ rights to maintain their own OBC lists, preventing deprivation of benefits for 671 state OBC communities.

Comparison with SC and ST List Additions:

  • Unlike additions to the Scheduled Caste (SC) and Scheduled Tribe (ST) lists, the Central OBC list does not require concurrence from other authorities.
  • The SC and ST lists have seen additions, sub-entries, and drops, with the NCBC Act and the President’s notification being the key steps for changes.
  • The NCBC considers social, educational, and economic indicators suggested by the Mandal Commission while evaluating additions to the Central OBC list.


  • The ongoing process of adding 80 castes to the Central OBC list in six states reflects efforts to ensure equitable representation and benefits for marginalized communities. The NCBC’s examination and subsequent Cabinet approval will lead to their inclusion, following the established procedure.

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