New Chief Justice of India
GS PAPER 2: Polity
Prelims Exam: Appointment of judges and article associated with it
Mains Exam: Significance of Collegium , Three Judge case
Why in News?
President DroupadiMurmu appointed Justice D.Y. Chandrachud as the 50th Chief Justice of India (CJI).
Appointment of Chief Justice of India
Appointment to the office of the Chief Justice of India should be of the seniormost Judge of the Supreme Court considered fit to hold the office. The Union Minister of Law, Justice and Company Affairs would, at the appropriate time, seek the recommendation of the outgoing Chief Justice of India for the appointment of the next Chief Justice of India.
- Whenever there is any doubt about the fitness of the seniormost Judge to hold the office of the Chief Justice of India, consultation with other Judges as envisaged in Article 124 (2) of the Constitution would be made for appointment of the next Chief Justice of India.
- After receipt of the recommendation of the Chief Justice of India, the Union Minister of Law, Justice and Company Affairs will put up the recommendation to the Prime Minister who will advise the President in the matter of appointment.
- The collegium is a group of CJI and the four senior most judges of the Supreme Court that decides on appointments of judges to the apex court.
- These appointments could be in the form of elevation when High Court judges are appointed to the Supreme Court or direct appointments when experienced lawyers may be directly appointed as Supreme Court judges.
- This collegium of the three senior-most SC judges also decides transfers of HC judges in the country.
Where did the collegium system come from?
The system finds its origins in the three cases called the “Judges cases” in India.
- In the 1981 SP Gupta case, also called the “first judges case”, the judges suggested that the executive must have the biggest say in judicial appointments.
- 12 years later, in 1993, a nine-judge bench in the “second judges case” said that the CJI must be given priority in such appointments.
- This was reiterated in the “third judges case” in 1998. Since then, the judges have been appointed by the collegium system.
- The Centre, however, has not supported the collegium system. According to the government, the current system is not transparent and is to blame for the high number of vacancies in the higher judiciary.
- In 2014, the National Judicial Appointments Commission (NJAC) Act was brought in by the NDA government, which would have accorded a major role to the executive in appointing judges to the higher judiciary.
- But it was struck down by the Supreme Court in 2015, continuing the current Collegium system of judicial appointments. A five-judge bench ruled against NJAC with a four-to-one split. It said the NJAC was against the basic structure of the Constitution.
Previous Judgements Given by Justice D.Y. Chandrachud
GS Paper: 3 – Environment and Biodiversity
Prelims exam: Pseudohelice annamalai
Why in News
Researchers have discovered a new species of estuarine crab at the mangroves of Parangipettai near the Vellar river in Cuddalore district.
About Pseudohelice annamalai
Source: The Hindu
- A species of crab belonging to the Varunidae family, Pseudohelice subquadrata can be found from the eastern Indian Ocean to the western Pacific Ocean.
- It lives near mangroves and digs burrows in firm soils, firm muddy sand, or loose stones.
- The crab has a spherical appearance, and its carapace can measure up to 25 mm in diameter.
- In recognition of its 100 years of dedication to education and research as a state university in India, this species is named after Annamalai University.
- The intertidal areas in front of the Faculty of Marine Science, Research Center (Centre of Advanced Study in Marine Biology, Annamalai University), Vellar River, Tamil Nadu, were also where the current specimens were gathered. The name is used in opposition as a noun.
What are crabs?
- Crabs are crustaceans; unlike humans, they do not have skeletons; instead, they have exoskeletons, a tough shell that surrounds their bodies.
- From tiny rock crabs you can hold in your palm to enormous spider crabs that may reach a span of ten feet, crabs come in various shapes and sizes.
- Crabs have four pairs of walking legs in addition to two feeding pincers.
- They consume clams, algae, tiny fish, and other tiny crustaceans for food. Besides being eaten by people, crab is also a favourite food of river and sea otters, halibut, dogfish, and great blue herons.
- As long as people have lived close to the water, crabs have been considered a delicacy throughout the world.
- Crab harvesting is a significant cultural and dietary activity for several native tribes in British Columbia.
- One of the primary decomposers in the marine ecosystem is the crab, which contributes to the cleaning of the ocean floor by collecting decaying plant and animal debris.
First privately developed rocket
GS Paper: 3- Science and technology
Prelims exam: Vikram-S rocket
Why in News
The Vikram-S rocket, the country’s first privately developed rocket, is currently undergoing final preparations at the ISRO (Indian Space Research Organisation) launchpad at Sriharikota.
About Vikram-S rocket
- The Vikram-S rocket is a single-stage sub-orbital launch vehicle that will be used to carry three customer payloads and help test and validate several technological components for the Vikram series of space launch vehicles.
- Skyroot Aerospace, which is based in Hyderabad, developed it. After receiving technical launch approval from the space regulator IN-SPACe, the ISRO Chairman announced the first Skyroot mission, “Prarambh.”
- A suborbital spaceflight is conducted at a lower altitude than an orbital flight, which travels at least as high as a low-Earth orbit, or between 200 and 2,000 kilometres above the planet’s surface
- Before actual commercial missions take place, suborbital flights are known to be crucial for conducting space mission experiments.
- Skyroot will launch a rocket into space for the first time with this maiden mission, ushering in a new era for the space industry, which was recently opened up to allow for private sector participation.
- The three Vikram rockets can lift between 290 kg and 560 kg of payloads into sun-synchronous polar orbits using a variety of solid and cryogenic fuels.
- The Vikram series, which was created entirely out of carbon fibre and is named after Dr. Vikram Sarabhai, the man who started India’s space programme, is capable of launching up to 800 kg of payloads into low-Earth orbit.
- Skyroot has designed the series with low cost and multi-orbit insertion capabilities for the small satellite market.
About Skyroot Aerospace
- Hyderabad-based Skyroot Aerospace Private Limited is an Indian private aerospace manufacturer and provider of commercial launch services.
- The company was founded by former ISRO scientists and engineers.
- In order to serve the market for small satellites, it intends to develop and use a range of small lift launch vehicles.
- Skyroot is the first startup to sign a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with ISRO. Skyroot has won two national awards.
- The “Prarambh” mission, which will be the first private sector launch, will see Vikram-S launch three customer satellites into sub-orbit.
IN-SPACe, the Indian National Space Promotion and Authorization Center:
- In June 2020, the establishment of IN-SPACe was announced.
- It is an independent, single-window nodal body within the Department of Space responsible for promoting, encouraging, and regulating both public and private sector space operations.
- Additionally, it makes it easier for private organisations to use ISRO facilities.
- The programme saw the exchange of memorandums of understanding between IN-SPACe and private sector businesses engaged in the provision of space-based applications and services.
Garuda-VII air exercise
GS PAPER 3: Defence
Prelims Exam: Defence Exercises with other countries
Mains Exam: Significance of Defence Exercises
Why in News?
The chiefs of Indian and French Air Forces joined the Air Exercise Garuda-VII in Jodhpur.
- Ex Garuda-VII is also the first occasion for the light combat aircraft (LCA) Tejas and the light combat helicopter (LCH) Prachand to participate in any international exercise.
- Includes four Rafale fighters and one A-330 multi-role tanker transport aircraft from the French side.
- IAF contingent consists of Su-30 MK-I, Rafale and Jaguar fighter aircraft, as well as Mi-17 helicopters.
It is the seventh edition of the bilateral exercise, being hosted by India for the fourth time so far.
- The first, third and fifth editions were conducted in India in 2003, 2006 and 2014 at Air Force stations Gwalior, Kalaikunda and Jodhpur, respectively.
- The second, fourth and sixth editions were conducted in France in 2005, 2010 and 2019.
India-France military cooperation
- A French Air and Space Force contingent, including three Rafale jets, made a strategically crucial stopover at the IAF’s Sulur base in Tamil Nadu as part of a mega military operation it carried out in the Pacific Ocean.
- Indian and French navies carried out a five-day mega wargame in the Arabian Sea, involving frontline ships, submarines, maritime patrol aircraft, fighter aircraft and helicopters.
- The Indian and French navies in April last year too carried out a mega wargame in the Arabian Sea.
- The French Navy deployed its nuclear-powered aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle, and its entire carrier strike group in that exercise, reflecting growing congruence in naval ties.
|India and France Defence & Space relation
Early warning system
GS PAPER 3: Environment
Prelims Exam: Early warning apps & organisation associated with this
Mains Exam: Reduction of impact of hazards on people
Why in News?
The National Geophysical Research Institute (NGRI) of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research has begun field studies to put in place an early-warning system in the Himalayan States.
- The scientists in the institute have identified a few locations in the higher reaches of Uttarakhand for “densification” of seismometers and river gauges to take the total number to 100 from 60.
- The objective is to closely monitor the river flows in specific areas along the catchment to detect any sudden rise in water levels or flooding threshold that can lead to a hazard.
- “A 5 cm of rainfall or a glacier melt may not be hazardous, but if there is a heavy rockfall or sudden lake burst, there could be massive flooding.
- Currently, scientists are able to detect and assess a sudden flow 30-40 km away since the seismic wave is faster than the flow, and hence, the advance warning comes at least half an hour before.
- The NGRI has started utilising Machine Learning to detect these observations faster than the normal approach because time becomes crucial during a warning.
What is Early warning system?
Early warning system is an adaptive measure for climate change, using integrated communication systems to help communities prepare for hazardous climate-related events. A successful EWS saves lives and jobs, land and infrastructures and supports long-term sustainability. Early warning systems will assist public officials and administrators in their planning, saving money in the long run and protecting economies. The UN, working in diverse partnerships, has introduced a number of innovative early warning systems initiatives in vulnerable areas around the world.
|The National Geophysical Research Institute (NGRI) is a geoscientific research organization established in 1961 under the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), India’s largest Research and Development organization. It is supported by more than 200 scientists and other technical staff whose research activities are published in several journals of national and international interest.
Research areas covered by this institute include hydrocarbon and coal exploration, mineral exploration, deep seismic sounding studies, exploration and management of groundwater resources, earthquake hazard assessment, structure of earth’s interior and its evolution (theoretical studies), geophysical instrument development and geothermal exploration.
|The Council of Scientific and Industrial Research , abbreviated as CSIR, was established by the Government of India in September 1942 as an autonomous body that has emerged as the largest research and development organisation in India.it is mainly funded by the Ministry of Science and Technology, it operates as an autonomous body through the Societies Registration Act, 1860.The research and development activities of CSIR include aerospace engineering, structural engineering, ocean sciences, life sciences and healthcare including diagnostics, metallurgy, chemicals, mining, food, petroleum, leather, and environmental science.|
IMD apps for early warning
Agencies for monitoring and assessment of natural hazards
India’s Vulnerability to Disasters
Warning Dissemination system
- Telephone, Tele-fax, Mobile Phones (SMS) through IMD severe weather network, Agromet Network, INCOIS network.
- VHF/HFRT/Police Wireless, Aeronautical Fixed Terminal Network
- Global telecommunication system (GTS)
- NAVTEX, Internet (e-mail),
- Mass Media , Radio/TV, News Paper network (AM, FM, Community Radio, Private TV)
- PrasarBharati and private broadcasters, Websites, Dedicated websites and web pages, Social media, Weekly and daily Weather Video