GS PAPER I
Why in News
- Arun Jaitley, Sushma Swaraj, Kangana Ranaut, Adnan Sami, Rani Rampal, PV. 141 people, including Sindhu, who did excellent work in various fields, were honored for the year 2020. Ramnath Kovind distributed the awards.
Padma Vibhushan Award
- This honor is the second highest civilian honor given by the Government of India.
- This honor is given for the valuable contribution in the civil sector to the country.
- This honor is given by the President of India. This honor was established on 02 January 1954.
- It is the second prestigious award after Bharat Ratna. This honor is given for distinguished and remarkable service in any field. The award also includes services rendered by government employees.
- Padma Vibhushan honorees include George Fernandes (posthumously), Arun Jaitley (posthumously), former Mauritius Prime Minister Anirudh Jugnauth, Mary Kom, Chhanu Lal Mishra, Sushma Swaraj (posthumously) and Mahant Vishweshatheertha (posthumous) of Pejavara Math.
Padma Bhushan Award
- This honor is the third highest civilian honor given by the Government of India.
- This honor is given for valuable contribution to the country.
- Padma Bhushan awardees include M. Mumtaz Ali, Syed Muazem Ali (posthumously), Muzaffar Hussain Baig, Ajay Chakraborty, Manoj Das, Balkrishna Doshi, Krishnamal Jagannathan, former Nagaland Chief Minister SC Jamir, eminent environmentalist from Uttarakhand and Social worker Dr. Anil Prakash Joshi, Sering Nandol, eminent industrialist Anand Mahindra, Neelkanth Ramakrishna Madhav Menon (posthumously), former Union Minister Manohar Parrikar (posthumous), Prof. Jagdish Seth, Olympian badminton player PV Sindhu and industrialist Venu Srinivasan.
Padma Shri Award:
- This honor is generally given only to Indian citizens by the Government of India.
- This honor is given in recognition of his distinguished contribution in various fields of life such as, arts, education, industry, literature, science, sports, medicine, social service and public life etc.
- Padma Shri awardees include Adnan Sami, Karan Johar, Kangana Ranaut, Ekta Kapoor, Suresh Wadkar, industrialist Bharat Goenka, hockey player Jitu Rai and mathematician Vashistha Narayan Singh (posthumously) Jagdish Lal Ahuja, Mohammad Sharif, Javed Ahmed Tak, Tulsi Goda, Satyanarayan Mundayur, Abdul Jabbar, Usha Chaumar, Poptrao Pawar, Harekala Hajba, Arunoday Mandal, Radhamohan and Sabarmati, Kushal Konwar Sharma, Triniti Savo, Ravikannan, S Ramakrishnan, Sundaram Verma, Munna Master, Yogi Aryan, Rahibai Soma Popera, Himmat Names of Ram Bhambhu, Mojzhikkal Pankajakshi are included.
About Padma Awards
- Padma Awards are the highest civilian award in India. Personalities from various fields like arts, science and engineering, social work, sports, civil service, literature and education etc. are honoured.
- Padma awards are announced every year on the occasion of Republic Day.
- After this, the President honors him in a ceremony to be held at Rashtrapati Bhavan in March or April.
GS PAPER II
Draft Arbitration Bill
Why in News
- The Government of India is taking various policy initiatives to promote and strengthen the Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) mechanism through amendments to existing laws and new Acts for speedy settlement of disputes, unlike traditional court systems.
- As a part of this, a special law for arbitration has been considered.
- Arbitration laws are enshrined in several enactments including rules and regulations, so it was felt necessary to lay down the current statutory framework on arbitration and introduce a comprehensive legislation with amendments to the existing laws.
- The Bill considers the international practice of using the words ‘conciliation’ and ‘arbitration’ interchangeably.
- Since India is a signatory to the Singapore Arbitration Agreement, it is desirable to enact a law on arbitration on domestic and international arbitration issues.
- Accordingly, a draft Bill has been prepared with a view to promote, encourage and facilitate arbitration, especially institutional arbitration, for settlement of commercial and other disputes.
- It aims to enforce domestic and international arbitration agreements, create a body for registration of arbitrators, encourage community arbitration and make online arbitration an acceptable and cost-effective process.
- Other matters connected with the dispute or matters incidental to arbitration may also be included.
The salient features of the Bill are as follows:-
- The draft bill proposes pre-litigation mediation and also protects the interests of litigants to approach competent judicial forums/courts for immediate relief.
- The successful outcome of the arbitration in the form of an Arbitration Resolution Agreement (MSA) is made enforceable by law. Since the arbitration settlement agreement is outside the mutually agreed agreement between the parties, it is permitted to be challenged on a limited basis.
- The arbitration process protects the confidentiality of the arbitration and in certain cases provides protection against disclosure.
- Facility for registration of arbitration settlement agreement with State/District/Taluk legal authorities within 90 days has also been provided, to ensure maintenance of certified records of the said settlement.
- Provision for the establishment of the Arbitration Council of India.
- Community mediation facility.
GS PAPER II
Smart Anti-Airfield Weapon
Why in News
- Defense Research and Development Organization (DRDO) and Indian Air Force (IAF) have successfully conducted two flight tests of indigenously developed Smart Anti-Airfield Weapon.
- These two tests with different configurations were based on satellite navigation and electro-optical sensors. The electro-optical seeker based flight test of this class of bombs has been done by the Indian Army for the first time in the country.
- This electro optic sensor is indigenously developed. The Defense Ministry said that the weapon was launched by an Indian Air Force aircraft from the Chandan range in Jaisalmer, Rajasthan on October 28, 2021 and November 03, 2021.
- The electro-optical configuration of this system is equipped with Imaging Infra-Red (IIR) Seeker technology which enhances the precision strike capability of the weapon.
- In both these tests, the intended target was hit with high accuracy.
- Features of Electro Optical Configuration Imaging Infra-Red (IIR) Seeker Technology
- This indigenously developed system is designed for a maximum range of 100 kms.
- A newly optimized launcher ensured smooth release and ejection of the said weapon/bomb and then, advanced guidance and navigation algorithms, software performed as per mission requirements.
- The telemetry and tracking system captured all mission events throughout the flight.
- All the objectives of this mission have been successfully achieved.
- This electro-optic sensor is indigenously developed.