GS PAPER II
Constitution (Scheduled Tribes) Order (Amendment) Bill, 2021
Why in News
Recently, the Ministry of Tribal Affairs introduced ‘Constitution (Scheduled Tribes) Order (Amendment) Bill, 2021’ in Lok Sabha.
- The Bill amends the ‘Constitution (Scheduled Tribes) Order, 1950’.
- The Constitution empowers the President to specify the Scheduled Tribes (STs) in various states and union territories.
- It also empowers the Parliament to modify the list of notified STs.
- This bill has been introduced to give effect to modifications proposed by the state of Arunachal Pradesh.
- It removes the Abor tribe from the list of identified STs in Arunachal Pradesh.
- The bill allowing inclusion of Mishmi-Kaman (Miju Mishmi), Idu (Mishmi), Taraon (Digaru Mishmi) and Monpa, Memba, Sartang and Sajolang (Miji) in the list in lieu of ‘Mishmi, Idu, Taroan’ and ‘Momba’ respectively.
- The bill provides for modifying Part-XVIII of the Schedule to the Constitution (Scheduled Tribes) Order, 1950, relating to the state of Arunachal Pradesh.
GS PAPER II
Why in news
As per the National Commission for Protection of Child Rights (NCPCR), 356 complaints have been received through POCSO e-Box during the last three years and the current year 2021-22 till June, 2021, out of which 123 complaints have been addressed conclusively.
Protection of Children from Sexual Offences (POCSO) Act
- Protection of Children from Sexual Offences (POCSO) Act, 2012 was implemented by the Government of India, which is a comprehensive law that provides protection to children from the offences of sexual assault, sexual harassment and pornography.
- It was enacted by Government of India to provide the safeguards for children against sexual abuse.
- The Act was amended in 2019 to introduce more stringent punishment including death penalty for committing sexual crimes on children, with a view to deter the perpetrators & prevent such crimes against children.
- Section 44 (1) of POCSO Act, 2012 provides that National Commission for Protection of Child Rights (NCPCR) and State Commission for Protection of Child Rights (SCPCR) shall monitor the implementation of the provisions of the Act.
Significance of the act
- The POCSO Act is gender neutral and recognises that boys can be victims of sexual violence as well.
- It defines a child as someone under the age of 18. The Indian Penal Code does not recognise that sexual assault can be committed on boys.
- The Act also increased the scope of reporting sexual crimes against children. It expanded the definition of sexual assault to include non-penetrative sexual assault as well as aggravated penetrative sexual assault.
- It also included punishment for persons in positions of trust of authority like public servants, staff of educational institutions, police etc.
- The POCSO Act also specifically lays down stringent punishment for exposing children to, or using them to create child sexual abuse material (CSAM, also referred to as child pornography) under sections 13, 14, and 15.
- Under section 19 of the Act, it is mandatory to report sexual crimes against children, including when there is an apprehension that an offence under the Act has been committed.
- POCSO is not just applicable in cases of physical sexual crimes, but also ones that happen over the internet. This would include offences such as possessing CSAM, using children for the purposes of creating CSAM, or exposing children to pornography or CSAM.
Punishment under POSCO Act
- Penetrative Sexual Assault (Section 3) on a child – Not less than ten years which may extend to imprisonment for life, and fine (Section 4).
- Aggravated Penetrative Sexual Assault (Section 5) – Not less than twenty years which may extend to imprisonment for life, and fine (Section 6)
- Sexual Assault (Section 7) – Not less than three years which may extend to five years, and fine (Section 8)
- Aggravated Sexual Assault (Section 9) by a person in authority — Not less than five years which may extend to seven years, and fine (Section 10)
- Sexual Harassment of the Child (Section 11) — Three years and fine (Section 12)
- Use of Child for Pornographic Purposes (Section 14) — Not less than Five years and fine and in the event of subsequent conviction, seven years and fine Section 14 (1)
- Use of child for pornographic purposes resulting in penetrative sexual assault: Not less than 10 years (in case of child below 16 years, not less than 20 years)
- Use of child for pornographic purposes resulting in aggravated penetrative sexual assault: Not less than 20 years and fine
- Use of child for pornographic purposes resulting in sexual assault: Not less than three years which may extend upto five years
- Use of child for pornographic purposes resulting in aggravated sexual assault: Not less than five years which may extend to seven years
- Any person, who stores or possesses pornographic material in any form involving a child, but fails to delete or destroy or report the same to the designated authority, as may be prescribed, with an intention to share or transmit child pornography – Fine of not less than Rs 5,000; in the event of second of subsequent offence, fine not less than Rs 10,000.
GS PAPER III
V.O. Chidambaranar Port Trust
Why in News
The first batch of three e-cars were flagged off recently at the VO Chidambaranar Port Trust.
- V.O. Chidambaranar Port Trust became the first port of India to flagged of the batch of three e-cars.
- These electric vehicles have been supplied by the Energy Efficiency Services Limited (EESL), a Joint venture of Public Sector Undertaking (PSU), under Ministry of Power on wet lease basis, for a period of 6 years.
- As a part of wet lease agreement, EESL will also be providing Charging points at the Port, Insurance, Registration, deployment of drivers, and maintenance of the vehicles.
- These electric vehicles comprise a 21.50 kWh Lithium-ion battery pack, capable of powering the vehicle for 231 Kilometres in a single charge.
- The battery pack would be powered by an AC charger set-up that can simultaneously charge three cars (3 outputs) at a time with output power rating of 3.3kW per car.
- The charger set-up would be able to charge the battery from 0 to 100% in 8 hours.
- With zero tail-pipe emission, each electric vehicle would reduce the GHG footprint by more than 1.5 Tonnes of CO2 every year.
- As a part of ‘Maritime India Vision 2030’, the Ministry of Ports, Shipping and Waterways is committed to lead the world in Safe, Sustainable & Green Maritime Sector.
- V.O. Chidambaranar Port is equally inspired to induct multi-clean fuel strategy to reduce emissions at the Port.
V.O. Chidambaranar Port
- V. O. Chidambaranar Port Trust is one of the 13 major ports in India.
- It is second largest port in Tamil Nadu and third largest container terminal in India.
- V. O. Chidambaranar Port Trust is an artificial port and the third international port in Tamil Nadu and it is second all-weather port.
Maritime India Vision 2030
- The Maritime India Vision-2030 is a 10-year blueprint with the objective of overhauling the Indian maritime sector, envisages Rs 3 lakh crore investment in port projects that in turn promises to generate employment for 20 lakh persons.
- Maritime India Vision 2030 would involve an investment of over Rs 3 lakh crore, which would generate more than 20 lakh jobs and unlock annual revenue potential for major ports worth over Rs 20,000 crore.
- The government plans to increase the trans-shipment volumes of Indian cargo at Indian ports from 25 per cent in 2020 to more than 75 per cent by 2030 by operationalisation of Vizhinjam port and development of Transshipment zone in Kanyakumari and Champbell Bay.
- Initiatives to enhance Ease of Doing Business are planned under it which include implementing Enterprise Business System (EBS) to simplify and digitize processes across Major Ports by 2021, developing National Marine Logistics Portal.
- This would help in increasing India’s share of seafarers from 12 per cent at present to over 20 per cent.
GS PAPER III
Maadhyam -a National Single Window System
Why in News
India is going to launch a national single window system for regulatory clearances that is ‘Maadhyam’.
- Maadhyam is a national single window system that will allow investors to identify and apply for various pre-operations clearances needed for starting businesses in India.
- It will do away with the need of multiple applications across portals.
- This National Single Window System will eliminate the need for investors to visit multiple platforms/offices to gather information and obtain clearances from different stakeholders and provide time-bound approvals and real-time status update to investors.
- Maadhyam is also integrated with the states’ single window systems. Participating states are Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Assam, Goa, Gujarat, Karnataka, Himachal Pradesh, Odisha, Madhya Pradesh, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand and Telangana.
Significance of Maadhyam
- This portal will facilitate domestic as well as global investors in getting over 560 types of regulatory approvals online, including permission to start a fuel retail business, get a permanent exporter license, set up a unit in the special economic zone (SEZ), register a copyright, start a power exchange, or obtain license to start a private security agency.
- The Maadhyam platform will do away with the need for multiple applications across various portals.
- The idea of a national single window system is a great idea on paper, but its smooth implementation is crucial once launched.
- For this, states will also have to ramp up their infrastructure.
- The right mix of manpower is crucial to be able to understand the way such digital platform’s function.
GS PAPER III
Earth Observation Satellite
Why in News
The Indian Space & Research Organisation (ISRO) is all set to launch the Earth Observation Satellite, EOS-03 on 12th August, 2021.
- The Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle-F10 (GSLV) will blast off from the second launch pad of Satish Dhawan Space Centre in Sriharikota carrying the state-of-the-art agile Earth observation satellite which will be placed in a Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit.
- The GSLV Mk2 Rocket would be carrying India’s GISAT-1, an agile earth observation satellite that is meant to be placed in Geostationary orbit.
- This orbit is typically meant for communication satellites that have to cover a large swathe of land. A satellite in geostationary orbit would be in sync with the rotation cycle of the earth and it would appear to be stationary when seen from the earth.
- The EOS-03 satellite will enable near-real-time monitoring of natural disasters like floods and cyclones that have become common in the Indian subcontinent as it goes through major environmental and weather changes.
- The satellite will image the whole country four to five times on a daily basis, sending in key data related to weather and environmental change.
- It was originally scheduled in 2020, but due to COVID-19 pandemic, it is rescheduled in August 2021.