Daily Current Affairs for 5th November 2022

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National Tribal Dance Festival

GS PAPER 1: Art & Culture

Important for

Prelims Exam: Tribes in states

Mains Exam: In your opinion, up to what extent National Tribe Festival will help to improve our international relations? Analyse

Why in News?

Artists from 10 countries take part in National Tribal Dance Festival in Chhattisgarh, showcasing talent and getting a glimpse of Indian culture.

Key Points

  • Teams from all over the country competed in the festival, the international contingent, comprising artists from Mozambique, Mongolia, Togo, Russia, Indonesia, the Maldives, Serbia, New Zealand, Rwanda and Egypt, were invited to add an international flavour.
  • The event was also an opportunity to have a brief reconnect with roots.
  • Indian people had very close relations with Maori people and they even marry with each other.
  • This time, two themes have been kept in the Tribal Dance Festival. The first theme is ‘Tribal dance on harvesting’ and the second theme is ‘Tribal traditions and customs’.

Indian Council of Cultural Relations, Delhi (I.S.)

  • The Indian Council for Cultural Relations (ICCR) was founded in 1950 by Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, independent India’s first Education Minister.
  • Its objectives are to actively participate in the formulation and implementation of policies and programmes pertaining to India’s external cultural relations.
  • To foster and strengthen cultural relations and mutual understanding between India and other countries; to promote cultural exchanges with other countries and people, and to develop relations with nations.
About ‘Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs)’:

PVTGs are more vulnerable among the tribal groups.

  • They have declining or stagnant population, low level of literacy, pre-agricultural level of technology and are economically backward.
  • They generally inhabit remote localities having poor infrastructure and administrative support.


In 1973, the Dhebar Commission created Primitive Tribal Groups (PTGs) as a separate category, who are less developed among the tribal groups.

  • In 1975, the Government of India initiated to identify the most vulnerable tribal groups as a separate category called PVTGs and declared 52 such groups, while in 1993 an additional 23 groups were added to the category, making it a total of 75 PVTGs, spread over 18 states and one Union Territory (A&N Islands) in the country (2011 census).
  • Among the 75 listed PVTG’s the highest number are found in Odisha (13), followed by Andhra Pradesh (12).

In 2006, the Government of India renamed the PTGs as PVTGs.

Scheduled Tribes in India — Vikaspedia

EPFO pension scheme

GS PAPER 2: Governance

Important for

Prelims Exam: Provisions

Mains Exam: How this Supreme Court Decision will benefit the people?

Why in News?

The Supreme Court upheld the Employees’ Pension (Amendment) Scheme, 2014 of the Employees’ Provident Fund Organisation as “legal and valid”.

Key Points

  • The court used its extraordinary powers under Article 142 of the Constitution to allow eligible employees who had not opted for enhanced pension coverage prior to the 2014 amendments, to jointly do so with their employers within the next four months.
  • The court struck down a requirement in the 2014 amendments that employees who go beyond the salary threshold (of ₹15,000 per month) should contribute monthly to the pension scheme at the rate of 1.16% of their salary.
  • The requirement to contribute 1.16% of the salary to the extent that such salary exceeds ₹15,000 per month as an additional contribution made under the amendment scheme is held to be ultra vires to the provisions of the Employees’ Provident Funds and Miscellaneous Provisions Act, 1952.

Employees’ Provident Fund Organisation (EPFO)

  • EPFO is one of the World’s largest Social Security Organisations in terms of clientele and the volume of financial transactions undertaken. At present it maintains 24.77 crore accounts (Annual Report 2019-20) pertaining to its members.
  • The Employees’ Provident Fund came into existence with the promulgation of the Employees’ Provident Funds Ordinance on the 15th November, 1951. It was replaced by the Employees’ Provident Funds Act, 1952. The Employees’ Provident Funds Bill was introduced in the Parliament as Bill Number 15 of the year 1952 as a Bill to provide for the institution of provident funds for employees in factories and other establishments. The Act is now referred as the Employees’ Provident Funds & Miscellaneous Provisions Act, 1952 which extends to the whole of India. The Act and Schemes framed there under are administered by a tri-partite Board known as the Central Board of Trustees, Employees’ Provident Fund,consisting of representatives of Government (Both Central and State), Employers, and Employees.
  • The Central Board of Trustees administers a contributory provident fund, pension scheme and an insurance scheme for the workforce engaged in the organized sector in India. The Board is assisted by the Employees’ PF Organization (EPFO), consisting of offices at 138 locations across the country. The Organization has a well-equipped training set up where officers and employees of the Organization as well as Representatives of the Employers and Employees attend sessions for trainings and seminars. The EPFO is under the administrative control of Ministry of Labour and Employment, Government of India

 Employee Pension Scheme

  • The Employee’s Pension Scheme (EPS) was introduced in the year 1995 with the main aim of helping employees in the organised sector. All employees who are eligible for the Employees Provident Fund (EPF) scheme will also be eligible for EPS.
  • The Employees’ Provident Fund Organisation (EPFO) administers the system, which assures that employees receive a pension after they reach the age of 58. The scheme’s benefits are available to both existing and new EPF members. Both the employee and the employer contribute 12% of the employee’s basic salary and Dearness Allowance (DA) to the EPF. While the employee’s entire part goes to EPF, the employer’s contribution goes to EPS at a rate of 8.33 percent. After the employee retires, the plan provides a steady stream of income.

Carbon neutral tourist destination

GS PAPER 3: Environment

Important for

Prelims Exam: Climate ation plan of India

Mains Exam: Upto what extent Carbon neutral tourist destination will attract the people?

Why in News?

Mathura-Vrindavan, one of India’s largest pilgrimage centres, aims to become a “net zero carbon emission” tourist destination by 2041.

Key Highlights

  • Tourist vehicles will be banned from the entire Braj region, which includes famous pilgrim centres such as Vrindavan and Krishna Janmabhoomi.
  • Instead, only electric vehicles used as public transport will be allowed into the area.
  • According to the plan, the Braj region’s annual pilgrim-tourist footfall is expected to multiply from the current level of 2.3 crore to six crore by 2041.

Carbon Neutral

COP26: India PM Narendra Modi pledges net zero by 2070 - BBC News

India’s Stand at COP-26

The Government of India has articulated and put across the concerns of developing countries at the 26th session of the Conference of the Parties (COP26) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) held in Glasgow, United Kingdom. Further, India presented the following five nectar elements (Panchamrit) of India’s climate action:

  1. Reach 500GWNon-fossil energy capacity by 2030.
  2. 50 per cent of its energy requirements from renewable energy by 2030.
  3. Reduction of total projected carbon emissions by one billion tonnes from now to 2030.
  4. Reduction of the carbon intensity of the economy by 45 per cent by 2030, over 2005 levels.
  5. Achieving the target of net zero emissions by 2070.

Tourism Sector in India

Tourism Sector in India contribution UPSC

  • Tourism Sector is the third-largest foreign exchange earner for the country in 2019.
  • The foreign exchange earnings between 2016 and 2019 increased at a CAGR of 7%, but dipped in 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic.
  • By 2028, Indian tourism and hospitality is expected to earn US$ 50.9 billion as visitor exports compared with US$ 28.9 billion in 2018. Foreign Tourist arrivals had reached 10.9 million in 2019, before falling to 2.7 million in 2020 due to the pandemic.
  • India was ranked 34th in the Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2019 published by the World Economic Forum.
  • The Economic Impact 2019 Report published by the World Tourism and Travel Council (WTTC) has noted that between 2014-19, India witnessed the strongest growth in the number of jobs created (6.36 million), followed by China (5.47 million) and the Philippines (2.53 million).
  • In 2020, the Indian tourism sector accounted for 39 million jobs, which was 8% of the total employment in the country.
  • By 2029, it is expected to account for about 53 million jobs. Tourism sector provides diverse opportunities for jobs like in hospitality/hotels/accommodation, transportation, tour guides, travel operations etc.


GS PAPER 2: Polity

Important for

Prelims Exam: Articles

Mains Exam: Discuss about the procedure of removal of Governor and relevant Supreme Court Judgements on this?

Why in News?

DMK leader has urged “all like- minded MPs” to support a proposal addressed to President Droupadi Murmu to remove the Tamil Nadu Governor, R N Ravi.

Appointment of Governor

Article 155 (Appointment of Governor): The Governor of a State shall be appointed by the President by warrant under his hand and seal.

Article 156 (Term of office of Governor): 

(1) The Governor shall hold office during the pleasure of the President.

(2) The Governor may, by writing under his hand addressed to the President, resign his office.

(3) Subject to the foregoing provisions of this Article, a Governor shall hold office for a term of five years from the date on which he enters upon his office. Provided that a Governor shall, notwithstanding the expiration of his term, continue to hold office until his successor enters upon his office.

Article 157 (Qualifications for appointment as Governor) No person shall be eligible for appointment as Governor unless he is a citizen of India and has completed the age of thirty-five years.

Article 158 (Conditions of Governor’s office)

(1) The Governor shall not be a member of either House of Parliament or of a House of the Legislature of any State specified in the First Schedule, and if a member of either House of Parliament or of a House of the Legislature of any such State be appointed Governor, he shall be deemed to have vacated his seat in that House on the date on which he enters upon his office as Governor.

(2) The Governor shall not hold any other office of profit.

(3) The Governor shall be entitled without payment of rent to the use of his official residences and shall be also entitled to such emoluments, allowances and privileges as may be determined by Parliament by law and, until provision in that behalf is so made, such emoluments, allowances and privileges as are specified in the Second Schedule.

(3A) Where the same person is appointed as Governor of two or more States, the emoluments and allowances payable to the Governor shall be allocated among the States in such proportion as the President may by order determine.

(4) The emoluments and allowances of the Governor shall not be diminished during his term of office.

Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, referring to the Governor’s position as “ornamental”, called his powers “limited” and “nominal”. He described the Governor’s role thus in the Assembly debate on May 31, 1949: “The Governor under the Constitution has no functions which he can discharge by himself; no functions at all. While he has no functions, he has certain duties to perform, and I think the House will do well to bear in mind this distinction…According to the principles of the new Constitution he is required to follow the advice of his Ministry in all matters.”

Governor-State Relations

  • Governor appoints the Chief Minister after an election and the Council of Ministers on the advice of the CM (Article 164).
  • The Governor can also summon, prorogue, and dissolve the Legislative Assembly (Article 174).
  • Every Bill passed in an Assembly has to be sent to the Governor (Article 200), after which he has four options — to assent to the Bill, withhold assent, reserve the Bill for the consideration of the President, or return the Bill to the legislature, asking it to reconsider the Bill or an aspect of it.
  • As for the role of the Lieutenant Governor, Article 239, introduced through an amendment in 1956, states that each Union Territory will be administered by the President through an administrator appointed by him and given a designation he specifies.
    • The administrators in some UTs are designated as Lieutenant Governors, with a special provision (Article 239AA) for the National Capital Territory of Delhi, which was inserted in 1991.
    • The Lt. Governor of Delhi also acts on theadvice of the Council of Ministers except on the subjects of police, public order, and land.
    • The Lt. Governor can exercise his discretion when required by any law.
    • In case of a difference of opinion with the Ministers, he would have to consult the President.

Supreme Court Views on Removal

  • In Surya Narain Choudhary vs Union of India (1981), the Rajasthan HC held that the pleasure of the President was not justiciable and the Governor can be removed at any time by the President withdrawing pleasure.
  • SR Bommai vs. Union of India, 1994: The case was about the limits to the Governor’s powers in dismissing a state government under Article 356 of the Constitution. The floor of the Assembly is the only forum that should test the majority of the government of the day, and not the subjective opinion of the Governor.
  • Rameshwar Prasad Case, 2006: Supreme Court was called upon to pronounce its verdict on the validity of the proclamation of President’s Rule and the dissolution of the Assembly in Bihar in 2005. The SC held that the Governor could not decide based on his subjective assessments.
  • Sarkaria Commission Report (1988): Important recommendations- Governor should be a detached figure without intense political links or should not have taken part in politics in recent past, Governors must not be removed before completion of their five-year tenure, except in rare and compelling circumstances
  • Venkatachaliah Commission (2002): Governor’s appointment should be entrusted to a committee comprising the prime minister, the home minister, the speaker of the Lok Sabha and the chief minister of the concerned state, if governor to be removed before completion of term, the central government should do so only after consultation with the Chief Minister.
  • Punchhi Commission (2010): The phrase “during the pleasure of the President” should be deleted from the Constitution; Governor should be removed only by a resolution of the state legislature.
  • Rameshwar Prasad Case, 2006: Supreme Court was called upon to pronounce its verdict on the validity of the proclamation of President’s Rule and the dissolution of the Assembly in Bihar in 2005. The SC held that the Governor could not decide based on his subjective assessments.
  • In BP Singhal vs Union of India (2010) the Supreme Court upheld that “no limitations or restrictions are placed on the ‘at pleasure’ doctrine”, but that “does not dispense with the need for a cause for withdrawal of the pleasure”.

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