Daily Current Affairs for 4th Aug 2023

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Why in News?

  • Pakistan approves signing of security pact with U.S. The development comes days after Pakistan and the U.S. agreed to further enhance their relations in the defence field. The move indicates a fresh start in defence cooperation after years of distrust between the two nations and may open avenues for Islamabad to get military hardware from Washington.


  • Communication Interoperability and Security Memorandum of Agreement,known as the CIS­MOA is a foundational agreement that the U.S. signs with its allies and countries with which it wants to maintain close military and defence ties. It also provides legal cover to the U.S. Department of Defence for ensuring the sale of military equipment and hardware to other countries.

Run up to the Agreement

  • The development comes days after Pakistan and the U.S. agreed to further enhance their bilateral relations, including in the defence field, at a meeting between U.S. Central Command chief Gen. Michael Erik Kurilla and Pakistan’s Chief of Army Staff Gen. Asim Munir.
  • The signing of the CIS-MOA means the two countries are keen to maintain the institutional mechanism. The agreement, first signed between the Joint Staff Headquarters of Pakistan and the U.S. Department of Defence in October 2005 for 15 years, expired in 2020.
  • The two sides have now renewed that arrangement which covers joint exercises, operations, training, basing and equipment. The signing of the CISMOA indicates that the U.S. might sell some military hardware to Pakistan in coming years.




Why in News?

  • Researchers have recorded the first instance of captive breeding of the Himalayan vulture (Gyps himalayensis) in India at the Assam State Zoo, Guwahati. Details of the successful breeding were recently published in a paper titled “Breeding of Himalayan Vulture Gyps himalayensis Hume, 1869.

About Himalayan Vulture: Gyps himalayensis

  • Categorised as ‘near threatened’ on the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of threatened species, the Himalayan vulture is a common winter migrant to the Indian plains, and a resident of the high Himalayas.

Finding of the Paper

  • Successful hatching was noted and the nestling was shifted to the artificial brooding facility.
  • During first month, the nestling was kept in the brooder made up of a plastic box (1 x 1 x ½ f ) with a mat for the grip. The temperature was maintained around 30-¬35 C with a lamp, a water bowl and it was monitored with a thermo¬hygrometer.
  • The nestling was provided with sufficient space to move towards and away from the heat source. Along with the housing for nestling, the food, frequency of feed, and the growth and colouration of the nestling were observed.
  • Breeding the species in Guwahati was a daunting task as, in nature, this species breeds in snowclad mountains. But as these birds were kept in zoo for a long time, they acclimatised to the tropical environment.

Other Facts

  • Conservation breeding of the Himalayan vulture at the Guwahati Zoo is the second such instance in the world, after France, where the species has been bred in captivity.
  • Four Vulture Conservation Breeding Centre (VCBC), established by Bombay Natural History Society (BNHS) at Pinjore in Haryana, Bhopal in Madhya Pradesh, Rani in Assam, and Rajabhatkhawa in West Bengal are involved in conservation breeding of the white rumped vulture (Gyps bengalensis), slender¬billed vulture (Gyps tenuirostris), and the Indian vulture (Gyps indicus).
  • The unprecedented scale and speed of declines in vulture populations has left all the three resident Gyps vulture species categorised ‘Critically Endangered’.



Laptop imports will require licence; Govt. keen to boost local industry

Important for

Prelims Exam: PLI scheme

Mains Exam:

Why in news?

  • The Union government has restricted imports of personal computers, laptops, palmtops, automatic data processing machines, microcomputer/ processors and large/ mainframe computers with immediate effect.

More from the news

  • The move seems to be aimed at promoting domestic manufacturing, and probably targeted at China since more than 75 per cent of India’s total $ 5.33 billion imports of laptops and personal computers in 2022-23 was from the neighbouring country.
  • Laptop imports will require licence; Govt keen to boost local industry The Directorate General of Foreign Trade (DGFT) said imports of computers and other items under the seven categories of HSN Code 8471 (HSN is the Harmonised System of Nomenclature, a globally accepted method of naming goods) were restricted.

Objectives of the move

  • The move is being seen as a direct boost to the Centre’s recently renewed production-linked incentive (PLI) scheme for IT hardware to push companies to manufacture locally in India.
  • As per the Foreign Trade Policy, the licence for restricted imports shall not be required for the repair and return of re-import of goods repaired abroad.



Money Bills vs Finance Bills: What are the differences, what the court has ruled

Why in news?

  • Digital Personal Data Protection (DPDP) Bill is a normal Bill and not a Money bill and it was reported that Bill was being introduced under Article 117 of the Constitution, which deals with special provisions for Finance Bills quoted by Parliamentary Affairs Minister.

What is a Finance Bill?

Any Bill that relates to revenue or expenditure is a Financial Bill (Article 117). A Money Bill is also a specific type of Finance Bill , that must deal only with matters specified in Article 110 (1) (a) to (g).

Article 117 (1) indicates that a Bill that makes provision for any of the matters specified in clauses (a) to (f) of Article 110 (1) can be introduced or moved only on the President’s recommendation and cannot be introduced in the Rajya Sabha.

Article 117(3) deals with the provisions on expenditure from the consolidated fund of the India which are not included in Article 110 .Recommendations of the president is not required at the intoductiion stage.

What is the difference between Money Bills and Financial Bills?

  • A major difference between money and Financial Bills is that the Financial bill has the provision of including the Rajya Sabha’s (Upper House) recommendations, the former does not make their inclusion mandatory. The Lok Sabha has the right to reject the Rajya Sabha’s recommendations when it comes to Money Bills.
  • A Money Bill can only be introduced in the Lok Sabha, as laid down in Article 117 (1)

How are money and Financial Bills passed?

  • After being passed by the Lok Sabha, Money Bills are sent to the Rajya Sabha for its recommendations. Within 14 days, the Upper House must submit the Bill back to the Lower House with its non-binding recommendations.
  • There is no provision for a joint sitting for differences over a Money Bill.

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