Daily Current Affairs for 30th November 2022

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Launch Pad

GS PAPER 3: Science & Technology

Important for

Prelims Exam: About Launch Pad

Mains Exam: Significance of LaunchPad

Why in News?

India gets its first private space vehicle launch pad.

Key Points

  • AgniKul Cosmos, a chennai based private space-tech start-up has set up India’s first-ever launchpad at Sriharikota.
  • Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) has supported the private player AgniKul Cosmos for setting up the launchpad. The Company has planned a tech demonstration mission.
  • “India can now travel to space from one more space platform,” said the ISRO Chairman over the launch of the country’s first private launchpad.

The launchpad facility, which was designed by Agnikul and built in collaboration with ISRO and IN-SPACe (Indian National Space Promotion and Authorization Center) has two sections to it:

  • The AgniKul launchpad (ALP) and
  • The AgniKul mission control center (AMCC).

Technology demonstrator

  • AgniKul’s first launch, a controlled and guided mission, vertical launch using a patented engine, will take place from this launch pad. The mission is a technology demonstrator mirroring the orbital launch of Agnikul, but on a scaled-down scale.
  • Agnibaan is Agnikul’s highly customizable two-stage rocket, capable of carrying payloads of up to 100 kg in orbit (low-Earth orbit) at an altitude of approximately 700 km, with a plug-and-play configuration.
  • In December 2020, it became the first Indian company to sign a deal with ISRO.
  • The agreement, signed as part of the IN-SPACe initiative, authorizes AgniKul to use Indian Space Agency know-how and equipment to build Agnibahn and its launch pad.


IN-SPACe was conceived in June 2020 following the central government’s decision to open up the space sector and allow India’s private sector to participate in a wide range of space activities. It functions as an independent agency with a single point of contact that functions as an autonomous agency within the Ministry of Space.

Significant step in the Indian space sector

The capability to launch from one’s own launch pad while still working with ISRO’s launch operations teams is a privilege granted by the space agency and Indian National Space Promotion and Authorisation Centre (IN-SPACe). “Establishment of this private launchpad marks a significant step in opening the Indian space sector to private players and affirms the commitment of ISRO/DOS for facilitating the same.

Harimau Shakti 2022: India-Malaysia Joint Military Exercise

GS PAPER 3: Defence

Important for

Prelims Exam: About Harimau Shakti

Mains Exam: Significance of Harimau Shakti 2022

Why in News?

India–Malaysia joint military exercise “Harimau Shakti 2022” commenced at Pulai, Kluang, Malaysia on 28th November 2022. The annual training exercise between the Indian and Malaysian Army will culminate on 12th December 2022.

Key Points

  • The military exercise will be conducted for the next two weeks in Malaysia. Armies of both nations will hold joint army operations.
  • Joint Army to Army Operations for Mutual Benefit.
  • In the Harimau Shakti 2022 exercise, joint operations would include both training and operations.
  • Combat-experienced troops of the Garhwal Rifles Regiment of the Indian Army and the Royal Malay Regiment of the Malaysian Army are participating in the exercise.
  • This year, the focus of the exercise is to enhance inter-operability in planning and execution of various operations in jungle terrain.
  • The scope of this exercise involves a Command Planning Exercise (CPX) at the Battalion level and Company level Field Training Exercise (FTX) on sub-conventional operations.
The joint exercise schedule includes the establishment of a joint command post, joint surveillance centre, sharing expertise in the employment of aerial assets, technical demonstrations, casualty management and casualty evacuation apart from planning logistics at the Battalion level. Joint field training exercises, joint combat discussions and joint demonstrations will culminate with a two-day validation exercise.

Deepening ties of India-Malaysia Relations:

  • Malaysia is one of the most important countries for India’s Look East and Act East Policy. Around 7.2% of the population of Malaysia is of Indian origin. The two countries have close political, economic and socio-cultural relations. The relationship is further fostered with regular military exercises between the two countries.
  • This joint military exercise is unique as it is for the first time that the Armed Forces of Malaysia and India held all three joint exercises in a year.
  • In May 2022, Joint Naval Exercise Samdura Laksamana was conducted, and in August 2022, Joint Air Exercise Udara Shakti and now Joint Military Exercise.
  • The Joint Naval Exercise Samdura Laksamana was a field training exercise involving INS Satpura and two Royal Malaysian Navy ships, KD Perak and KD Badik. It was successfully implemented with an understanding of joint maritime operating procedures.
  • The Joint Air Exercise Udara Shakti witnessed the conduct of various aerial combat drills between the two Air Forces.
  • The Indian Air Force participated in the air exercise with Su-30 MKI and C-17 aircraft while the Malaysian Air Force with Su-30 MKM aircraft.


GS PAPER 3: Disaster Management

Important for

Prelims Exam: About Samanvay 2022

Mains Exam: Measures to Curb Disasters

Why in News?

Indian Air Force is conducting the Annual Joint Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief (HADR) Exercise “Samanvay 2022” at Air Force Station in Agra.


The exercise aims to provide a unique platform for the exchange of domain knowledge, experience and best practices with the participating Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) member countries. Various representatives of the ASEAN countries are supposed to participate in the exercise.

Strengthening the institutional mechanism:

  • The aim of the exercise includes assessing the efficacy of institutional Disaster Management structures and contingency measures. To build a deep understanding of it, a seminar on Disaster Management, a ‘Multi-Agency Exercise’ involving static and flying displays of various HADR assets and a ‘Tabletop Exercise’ held.
  • In India various national and regional stakeholders are involved in Disaster Management.
  • The exercise will promote a synergistic approach by involving various institutions like the Armed Forces, National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA), National Disaster Response Force (NDRF), Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO), Border Roads Organisation (BRO), India Meteorological Department (IMD) and the Civil Administration.
  • The exercise would aid in the evolution of institutional frameworks for effective communication, interoperability, cooperation and their application for the successful conduct of HADR.

Disaster Management in India:

  • In India, NDMA is the apex statutory body for disaster management. It was formally constituted on 27th September 2006, in accordance with the Disaster Management Act, 2005 with Prime Minister as its Chairperson.
  • Defence forces, because of their unparalleled discipline, organisational cohesiveness, and huge capacity in terms of logistics and operational capabilities in land, water and air are considered best suited for HADR operations.
  • Indian defence forces, under the aegis of Headquarters Integrated Defence Staff (HQ IDS), have been carrying out HADR operations within the country as well as outside the country.
  • The defence forces can deliver during various HADR contingencies because of their expertise in damage assessment, evacuation, setting up of relief infrastructure, restoring communication and providing medical facilities, distributing ration supplies, clothing etc.

Cyber-attack, AIIMS

GS PAPER 3: Basics of Cyber Security

Important for

Prelims Exam: About Cyber Security

Mains Exam: Measures to tackle Cyber attack

Why in News?

Hackers have allegedly demanded approximately Rs 200 crore in cryptocurrency from the All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), Delhi, whose server has been down for six days in a row.

About Cyber Attack

A cyberattack is any offensive maneuver that targets computer information systemscomputer networksinfrastructures, or personal computer devices. An attacker is a person or process that attempts to access data, functions, or other restricted areas of the system without authorization, potentially with malicious intent.

  • Cyber-Crimes: Cyber crime is unlawful acts wherein the computer is either a tool or a target or both.Cyber crimes can involve criminal activities that are traditional in nature, such as theft, fraud, forgery, defamation and mischief etc.
  • Cyberwars: Cyberwar is an organised effort by a nation state to conduct operations in cyberspace against foreign nations.Included in this category is the Internet’s use for intelligence gathering purposes.
  • Cyber-Terrorism: Cyberterrorism is the convergence of cyberspace and terrorism.It refers to unlawful attacks and threats of attacks against computers, networks and the information stored therein when done to intimidate or coerce a government or its people in furtherance of political or social objectives.

Some common cyber threats include:

  • Malware: Malware is software that does malicious tasks on a device or network such as corrupting data or taking control of a system.
  • Spyware: Spyware is a form of malware that hides on a device providing real-time information sharing to its host, enabling them to steal data like bank details and passwords.
  • Phishing attacks: Phishing is when a cybercriminal attempts to lure individuals into providing sensitive data such as personally identifiable information (PII), banking and credit card details and passwords.
  • Distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks: It aims to disrupt a computer network by flooding the network with superfluous requests to overload the system and prevent legitimate requests being fulfilled.
  • Ransomware: Ransomware is a type of malware that denies access to a computer system or data until a ransom is paid.
  • Trojans: A trojan creates a backdoor in your system, allowing the attacker to gain control of your computer or access confidential information.

Initiatives taken by the government

  • Information Act, 2000: The Information Act, 2000 (amended in 2008) is the primary law for dealing with cybercrime and digital commerce in India.
  • National Cyber Security Policy, 2013: The policy provides the vision and strategic direction to protect the national cyberspace.
  • The CERT-In (Cyber Emergency Response Team – India): CERT-In has been operational since 2004. It is the national nodal agency for responding to computer security incidents as and when they occur.
  • Indian Cyber Crime Coordination Centre (I4C):The Union Government has decided to set up 14C. It will be apex coordination centre to deal with cybercrimes.
  • Cyber Swachhta Kendra:Launched in early 2017, the Cyber Swachhta Kendra provides a platform for users to analyse and clean their systems of various viruses, bots/ malware, Trojans, etc.
  • Cyber Surakshit Bharat: Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology, launched the Cyber Surakshit Bharat initiative to spread awareness about cybercrime and building capacity for safety measures for Chief Information Security Officers (CISOs) and frontline IT staff across all government departments.
  • The Cyber Warrior Police Force: In 2018, the government announced its plans to introduce CWPF. It is proposed to be raised on lines of the Central Armed Police Force (CAPF).
  • Cyber-Crime Prevention against Women & Children’ Scheme:Implemented by the Ministry of Home Affairs, the scheme aims to prevent and reduce cyber crimes against women and children.

NITI Aayog’s CCUS proposes decarbonisation of industrial emissions

GS PAPER 1: Environmental pollution and degradation

Important for

Prelims Exam: About Decarbonisation

Mains Exam: India’s Pledge regarding climate change

Why in News?

Carbon Capture Utilisation and Storage (CCUS), the technology for decarbonising emissions from high polluting sectors such as steel, cement, oil, gas, petrochemicals, chemicals and fertilizers, has a critical role to play for the country to halve carbon dioxide emissions by 2050, says a report on the policy framework of the CCUS prepared by the NITI Aayog and MN Dastur & Company

PM’s net-zero pledge by 2070

  • CCUS has an important and critical role to play in the process to accomplish net-zero by 2070, which Prime Minister had pledged at COP26.
  • Further, India is prioritizing CCUS as a potential solution to decarbonise sectors like thermal power plant, iron and steel and cement industries among others.
  • CCUS aims to enable the production of clean products while utilizing India’s rich endowments of coal, reducing imports and thus leading to what we call self-dependency in Indian economy or Atmanirbhar Bharat.

India’s CO2 emission one-fourth of China

It is to be noted that India’s per capita CO2 emissions are about 1.9 tonnes per annum, which is less than 40% of the global average and also about one-fourth of that of China, however for a sustainable development and solutions, we need to decarbonise sectors that contribute to 70% of emission.

Transition from blue to green hydrogen

  • CCUS is also aimed to support the transition from blue hydrogen to green hydrogen by accelerating the demand growth and creating technologies and infrastructure for production, storage and transportation of hydrogen.
    • The fascinating aspect of this process is that the conversion of CO2 into usable chemicals and products, is sure to spur the economic growth.
    • It will also help in achieving some of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) like green aggregates, green ammonia and methanol and ultimately green energy.
  • Titled ‘Carbon Capture, Utilisation, and Storage Policy Framework and its Deployment Mechanism in India’, a report was released, which explores the importance of Carbon Capture, Utilisation, and Storage as an emission reduction strategy to achieve deep decarbonization from the hard-to-abate sectors.
  • The report outlines broad level policy interventions needed across various sectors for its application.

45% reduction in emission intensity by 2030

  • India has updated its NDC targets for achieving 50% of its total installed capacity from non-fossil-based energy sources.
  • Under new NDC targets, 45% reduction in emission intensity by 2030, has been set.
  • In such a situation, taking steps towards achieving Net Zero by 2070, the role of Carbon Capture, Utilisation, and Storage (CCUS) become important as reduction strategy to achieve decarbonization from the hard-to abate sectors.

Significant employment generation

  • CCUS projects is also going to lead to a significant employment generation.
  • It estimates that about 750 mtpa of carbon capture by 2050 can create employment opportunities of about 8-10 million on full time equivalent (FTE) basis in a phased manner.
  • NITI Aayog says, India’s dependency on the fossil-based Energy Resources is likely to continue in future, hence CCUS policy in Indian Context is needed.

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