GS PAPER III NEWS
Why in News
- The fear of Omicron, a new variant of the corona virus, is slowly spreading. The speed of its infection is very fast.
- Experts have warned the government and appealed to speed up genome sequencing. It is suggested to increase the reliance on S-gene PCR testing. This is very important to prevent the spread of the virus and to assess the situation.
- Scientists and health experts around the world are saying that when testing a person suffering from Omicron, it is important to know whether the S-Gene has dropped out.
- Why is there so much emphasis on the S-Gene factor in Omicron’s investigations?
What is S-Gene?
- The S-gene is one of the S gene targets that have not been detected due to mutation. This is called S gene dropout or S gene target failure, which is a marker to identify the omicron type.
- World Health Organization
- WHO has also directed laboratories and genome sequencing scientific organizations around the world to test the S-Gene factor?
- Determine how fast the Omicron variant is spreading.
- This will give early and solid information related to the infection of Omicron.
- Omicron’s Probe
- The World Health Organization has said that the kits needed to test Omicron are currently being developed.
- Until then, genome sequencing will have to be resorted to. For this test, RNaseP and beta actin will be needed in the kit.
- The absence of the S-Gene on the outer layer of the virus variant will be detected, immediately indicating that it is an Omicron variant.
- When genome sequencing takes place, scientists try to find out how the genetic material of the corona virus found in the sample is the structure of DNA or RNA.
- Then its interiors are examined.
- Most of the people infected so far in South Africa are young and have mild symptoms. It is being told that this variant can cause different symptoms than Delta.
- The World Health Organization states that there is no evidence that Omicron’s symptoms differ from those of other types.
- This means that a new cough, fever and loss of taste or smell are still the main three symptoms to look out for.
- Difference between Omicron and other variants
- The Omicron variant contains many different mutations that have not been observed before. A large number of them are on the virus’s spike protein, which is the target of most vaccines and is the main concern.
GS PAPER III
National Pollution Control Day
Why in News
- National Pollution Control Day is celebrated every year in India on 2nd December.
- This day is celebrated in the memory of the people who lost their lives in the Bhopal Gas Tragedy.
- National Pollution Control Day is celebrated in India to make citizens aware of the laws existing in India.
- National Pollution Control Day is celebrated every year on 2 December in India to raise awareness about the problems of increasing pollution.
- The main objective of this day is to spread awareness about the management and control of industrial disasters, prevention of pollution caused by industrial processes or human negligence, to make people and industries aware about the importance of Pollution Control Acts.
- The purpose of this day is also to make people aware about the prevention of air, soil, and sound and water pollution.
- National Pollution Control Day is a very important day to understand the ill effects of air pollution.
- According to the National Health Portal every year 7 million people lose their lives due to air pollution.
- The situation is so bad that at the international level, 9 out of every 10 people do not have access to pure air.
- The theme of National Pollution Control Day 2021 is to make people aware of the things we can do to stop pollution and control pollution of the world.
- On this day it is also necessary to remember those people who have lost their lives due to pollution disasters.
- Bhopal gas tragedy showed the whole world how pollution and presence of toxic gases in the environment can be dangerous.
- National Pollution Prevention Day started being celebrated in India to remember this day forever.
- The day is celebrated not only in honor of the people who lost their lives in the tragedy, but also to prevent pollution caused by industrial disasters or human negligence.
Bhopal gas tragedy
- The Bhopal gas tragedy happened on 2nd and 3rd December, 1984. During this accident, the toxic chemical Methyl Isocyanine was leaked from Union Carbide India Limited, a pesticide plant in Bhopal.
- Thousands of people had died due to the poisonous gas. The Bhopal gas tragedy is one of the world’s worst industrial disasters ever.
- The impact of this accident lasted for years as the number of cancers and birth defects increased significantly.
GS PAPER III
Effect of La Nia on Temperature and Rainfall
Why in News
- The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) stated that, for the second year in a row, La Nina has been active, affecting temperature and rainfall and is expected to persist until the beginning of the year, 2022, however, due to climate change. There will be no direct effect.
- The World Meteorological Organization has said in a press release that, “Despite the cooling effect of this naturally occurring climate event, temperatures are expected to remain above average in many parts of the world as greenhouse gases reach record highs.” The heat is accumulated in the atmosphere as a result of the level.”
- Temperatures are expected to remain above average in many land areas, with the major exceptions of northwestern North America, the Indian subcontinent, the Indochinese peninsula and Australia.
- However, it will affect climate-sensitive sectors such as agriculture, health, water resources and disaster management.
Lani na cold Effect
- Professor Petteri Talas, Secretary-General of the WMO, stated that, “The cooling effect of La Nia in the year, 2020/2021 – which is usually felt in the second half of La Nia – means that the year, 2021 will be the warmest year.
- This is a short-term relief and does not reverse/reverse long-term warming trends or reduce the urgency of climate action.”
- La Nia refers to a large-scale cooling of sea surface temperatures in the central and eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean, coupled with changes in tropical atmospheric circulation, namely winds, pressure and precipitation.
- It usually has an adverse effect on weather and climate in the form of El Niño, the warm phase of the El Nio Southern Oscillation (ENSO).
- It is a major driver of ENSO naturally occurring climate variability and a major source of seasonal climate forecasting.
- According to the latest assessment report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (AR6 WRI), in this warming world, the associated ENSO precipitation variability is likely to intensify at regional scales.
- El Nio and La Nia are not the only factors and no two La Nia or El Nio events are identical.
- Therefore WMO now issues monthly Global Seasonal Climate Updates (GSCU) to provide additional actionable information to decision-makers.
- According to the latest WMO update, high tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures (90 percent) are likely to remain at La Nia levels until the end of 2021, and remain at La Nia levels until the first quarter of 2022 the temperature is likely to remain at moderate level (70-80 per cent).
- This update is based on WMO long range forecasts and forecasts from the Global Production Center for expert interpretation.