Meaning of the ‘Johar’ greeting used by President
Prelims exam: Johar
Why in News
The 15th President of India, Droupadi Murmu, assumed office with a ‘Johar’ greeting to the country.
What is Johar?
• ‘Johar’, which essentially means ‘salutation and welcome’, is used within the tribal communities of Jharkhand, and in parts of Chhattisgarh and Odisha.
• According to several tribal leaders from Jharkhand, the word ‘Johar’ also means ‘paying respect’.
• Tribal communities are nature worshippers and follow Sarna religion code, although it is not an official religion.
Which tribal communities use the word ‘Johar’ for greeting?
• Johar, is predominantly used by Santhali, Munda and Ho communities that share some similarities.
• Almost all, including tribal Christians, use the word ‘Johar’ along with some other words for salutation.
o People belonging to the Oraon community use the word ‘Jai Dharam’, apart from Johar, as a salutation.
Different forms of ‘Johar’ salutation?
There are at least four types. One of them is ‘Doboh Johar’, which is used between people where one among them has a higher standing.
World Tiger Day
GS Paper 3: Conservation, Environmental Pollution and Degradation, Environmental Impact Assessment.
Prelims exam: Tiger Conservation Initiatives
Mains exam: Importance of Tigers in Ecosystem and their conservation.
Why in News
Global Tiger Day is celebrated every year on July 29th as a way to raise awareness about this magnificent but endangered big cat.
• The tiger (Panthera tigris) is the largest living cat species.
• It is most recognisable for its dark vertical stripes on orange fur with a white underside.
• An apex predator, it primarily preys on ungulates, such as deer and wild boar.
Why save Tiger?
1. Save tigers, save forests, and grasslands
• Tigers and forests are deeply rooted together.
• They live, breed, and hunt in groves, and as apex predators, these majestic species are a sign of a healthy ecosystem.
• Protecting tigers also helps safeguard a range of critically important habitats and ecosystems.
• Likewise, each hectare protected as a tiger habitat has a multitude of economic benefits.
2. Helps sustain the future of a multitude of wildlife
• Tiger is the largest cat on earth and is a top predator.
• It helps check the population of herbivores while maintaining the health of a forest or grassland that they call home.
• By protecting their kingdoms, we are securing the future for other wildlife!
3. A cultural icon for millions
• For centuries, tigers are symbolically embedded in the Indian culture.
• From ancient folklore, children’s books to scriptures, this feline has been largely depicted in our culture since time immemorial.
4. Significant to pacify climate change
• Tigers play a significant role in mitigating climate change.
• Tiger landscapes store more carbon than any other forest in any region.
• Protected forests in the tiger reserve in Asia are the most effective carbon stores in the entire world.
5. Economic advantages for communities
• Conserving these majestic big cats caters to multiple financial benefits.
• Tiger reserves support human life by protecting fish nurseries and agricultural lands, providing clean drinking, and irrigation water.
• These habitats are a boon for communities-economically!
Initiatives taken for Tiger conservation
India is home to around 75 percent of the global tiger population. Therefore, the country has an important role to play in tiger conservation.
• The Government of India started ‘Project Tiger’ in 1972 with a view to conserving the animal.
• As part of this project nine core buffer areas for maintaining tiger population were notified. Now, this has expanded to 52 tiger reserves.
CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora)
• Besides protecting tiger territory, other measures being taken to save the tiger include: curbing wildlife trade through
• CITES is an international agreement between governments aimed at ensuring that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants, including tigers, does not threaten their survival. India ratified this treaty in 1976.
Global Tiger Forum and Tiger Range Countries
• Established in 1994, the Global Tiger Forum is the only inter-governmental body for tiger conservation.
• Its membership includes seven tiger range countries: Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Cambodia, Myanmar, Nepal and Vietnam.
• 14 tiger reserves have been accredited under CA|TS (Conservation Assured | Tiger Standards) categories.
• The CA|TS is a set of criteria that examines the management of tiger sites to gauge the success rates of tiger conservation.
St. Petersburg Declaration
• This resolution was adopted In November 2010, by the leaders of 13 tiger range countries (TRCs) assembled at an International Tiger Forum in St. Petersburg, Russia
• It aimed at promoting a global system to protect the natural habitat of tigers and raise awareness among people on white tiger conservation.
• TX2 stands for ‘Tigers times two’, signalling the goal to double wild tigers.
• The TX2 goal is a global goal started by WWF (Worldwide fund for Nature).
Are these conversation initiatives helpful?
• The four-year tiger census report, Status of Tigers in India, 2018 shows the number of the big cat has increased across all landscapes.
• The total count has risen to 2,967 from 2,226 in 2014 — an increase of 741 individuals (aged more than one year), or 33%, in four years.
• At present, India has around 75% of tiger population and its source areas amongst the 13 tiger range countries in the world.
Threats to Tigers
• Tigers have lost an estimated 95% of their historical range.
• Their habitat has been destroyed, degraded, and fragmented by human activities.
• The clearing of forests for agriculture and timber, as well as the building of road networks and other development activities, pose serious threats to tiger habitats.
• People and tigers increasingly compete for space.
• As forests shrink and prey becomes scarce, tigers are forced to leave protected areas in search of food and to establish territories.
• This takes them into human-dominated areas that lie between habitat fragments, where they can hunt domestic livestock that many local communities depend on for their livelihood.
• In retaliation, tigers are sometimes killed or captured.
EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE
• Rising sea levels caused by climate change threaten to wipe out these forests and the last remaining habitat of this tiger population.
TIGER “FARMS” AND CAPTIVE TIGERS
• Current estimates indicate that there are more than 8,000 tigers being held in more than 200 centres in East and Southeast Asia, with roughly three-quarters of these tigers located in China.
• The current scale of commercial captive breeding efforts within these farms is a significant obstacle to the recovery and protection of wild tiger populations.
• The process of tiger conservation should be more dynamic and compatible with the future possibilities of climatic changes as well.
• The Forest Department and the Central government can collaborate to protect the natural corridors to ensure the free movement of the tigers for better food resources.
• Campaigns such as ‘Save the Tiger’ are recommended as effective measures to make people across the country and globe aware of the significance of conserving tiger species.
• Sensitization of local communities against poaching is also a crucial measure in this regard.
• We have to make the environment and development co-exist and go hand in hand by planning our future developmental goals in such a manner that our environmental goals are not compromised.
Trend on Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in India
GS Paper 3: Indian Economy
Prelims exam: FDI, Major contributors to India
India among top 20 host economies
• As per the UNCTAD World Investment Report (WIR) 2022, in its analysis of the global trends in FDI inflows, India has improved one position to 7th rank among the top 20 host economies for 2021.
• Despite the ongoing pandemic and global developments, India received the highest annual FDI inflows of USD 84,835 million in FY 21-22 overtaking last year’s FDI by USD 2.87 billion.
Reforms taken by the Government
The Government has implemented several transformative reforms under the FDI policy regime across sectors such as insurance, defence, telecom, financial services, pharmaceuticals, retail trading, e-commerce, construction & development, civil aviation, manufacturing etc.
Top 5 countries for FDI equity inflows into India FY 2021-22
Top 5 sectors receiving highest FDI Equity Inflow during FY 2021-22
• Computer Software & Hardware
• Services Sector (Fin., Banking, Insurance, Non-Fin/Business, Outsourcing, R&D, Courier, Tech. Testing and Analysis, Other)
• Automobile Industry
• Construction (Infrastructure) Activities
Top 5 States receiving highest FDI Equity Inflow during FY 2021-22
• Tamil Nadu