Official Recognition to E-Sports
Why in News?
The President of India has requested that the Ministries of Sports and Electronics and Information Technology include “eSports in multi-sport events” and amended the regulation governing eSports.
- According to Article 77(3) of the Constitution, the President has the authority to enact regulations for the government of India’s business transactions and for the allocation of said business among Ministers.
- E-Sports will now be a part of the “multisports event” category in India, according to a gazette notification.
What is E-Sports?
- Esports (Electronic Sports) is a competitive sport where gamers/players use their physical and mental abilities to compete in various games in a virtual, electronic environment.
- For instance: Counter Strike, League of Legends, Overwatch, Fortnite, DOTA 2.
- Following its inclusion in the 2018 Jakarta Asian Games, there had been an increase in demand for Esports to be covered in the curriculum of multi-discipline events.
- However, this gave esports enthusiasts a boost and gave others who were interested in the sport in India a push.
- Esports was a demonstration title at the 2018 Asian Games, where India won a bronze medal.
- It has acquired recognition as a sport by the International Olympic Committee (IOC), which, along with the Commonwealth Games and the Olympic Council of Asia, is the apex body of sports.
- Before the Tokyo Olympics 2020, IOC organized Virtual Olympic Series (Esports Tournament).
- Esports has been a part of OCA events since 2007. It is a medal sports in Asian Games 2022.
- The International Olympic Committee (IOC) has announced that Singapore would host the inaugral Olympic Esports Week in June 2023 in a similar effort to popularise e-Sport.
- The Department of Sports under the Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports will oversee e-Sports.
- While MEITY will be in charge of “Online Gaming” (Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology).
Recognition of E-Sport as a Sport:
- Esports have been recognised as a sport by a number of nations, including the US, Finland, and even the somewhat reticent Germany.
- China and South Africa were among the first few countries to recognise esports as a sport, along with South Korea. In addition, Nepal, Italy, Denmark, and Russia have joined.
- In September 2020, Ukraine officially recognized esports as a sport.
GS PAPER II NEWS
ELECTION COMMISSION OF INDIA (ECI) BEGINS DELIMITATION IN ASSAM WITH 2001 CENSUS
Why in News?
ECI has initiated the delimitation process for assembly and parliamentary constituencies in Assam, as per Section 8A of Representation of People Act (RPA), 1950.
- Last delimitation of constituencies in Assam was done on basis of 1971 census figures.
- As per Section 8A of RPA 1950, President can order a delimitation exercise to be carried out in four North East States (NES)-Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur and Nagaland.
- Delimitation exercise has not been carried out for last 51 years in these states.
- Last delimitation exercise (2002-08), kept out these NES due to apprehensions over use of 2001 Census.
- Issues involved: Violates fundamental rights guaranteed to citizens of India under Article 14 of Constitution, increasing law and order problems etc.
- Delimitation is the process of fixing limits or boundaries of territorial constituencies in a country or a state with a legislative body.
- It provides equal representation for equal population segments, and fair division of geographical areas, so that no political party has an advantage.
- Delimitation Commission’s (DC) orders cannot be questioned before any court.
- Members of Delimitation Commission: A retired Judge of SC, Chief Election Commissioner of India, State Election Commissioner (of respective state).
How does delimitation take place?
- Delimitation is carried out by an independent Delimitation Commission.
- After every Census, the Parliament enacts a Delimitation Act in accordance with Article 82.
- Once the Act is in effect, the Union government establishes a DC made up of the Chief Election Commissioner, the State Election Commissioners, and a retired Supreme Court judge.
- The Gazette of India, the official gazettes of the states concerned, and at least two vernacular papers publish the DC’s draft proposals for public feedback.
- Additionally, the Commission holds public sittings.
- After hearing the public, it takes into account suggestions and objections, received in writing or orally during public sittings, and carries out changes, if any, in the draft proposal.
- The final order is published in both the State Gazette and the Gazette of India, and it takes effect on the day the President specifies.
GS PAPER III NEWS
Naegleria fowleri: The Brain-eating Amoeba
Why in News?
The “brain-eating amoeba,” Naegleria fowleri, has been reported in South Korea for the first time.
- An amoeba often called an amoeboid, is a type of cell or unicellular organism with the ability to alter its shape, primarily by extending and retracting pseudopods.
- Naegleria fowleri is an ameba (single-celled living organism) that lives in soil and warm fresh water, such as lakes, rivers, and hot springs.
- It is commonly called the “brain-eating ameba” because it can cause a brain infection when water containing the ameba goes up the nose.
- Only about three people in the United States get infected each year, but these infections are usually fatal.
- It was first discovered in Australia in 1965 and So far, it has been found in all continents and declared as the cause of PAM in over 16 countries, including India.
How does Naegleria fowleri infect people?
- Naegleria fowleri infects people when water containing the ameba enters the body through the nose.
- This typically happens when people go swimming, diving, or when they put their heads under fresh water, like in lakes and rivers.
- The ameba then travels up the nose to the brain, where it destroys the brain tissue and causes a devastating infection called primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM). PAM is almost always fatal.
- Naegleria fowleri infections may also happen when people use contaminated tap water to cleanse their noses during religious practices or rinse their sinuses (sending water up the nose).
- In very rare instances, people have gotten Naegleria fowleri infections from recreational water that didn’t have enough chlorine in it, such as pools, splash pads, or surf parks.
What are the symptoms of Naegleria fowleri infection?
- Naegleria fowleri causes Primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM), a brain infection that destroys brain tissue. In its early stages, symptoms of PAM may be similar to symptoms of bacterial meningitis.
- The first symptoms of PAM usually start about 5 days after infection, but they can start within 1 to 12 days.
- Symptoms may include headache, fever, nausea, or vomiting. Later symptoms can include stiff neck, confusion, lack of attention to people and surroundings, seizures, hallucinations, and coma.
- After symptoms start, the disease progresses rapidly and usually causes death within about 5 days (but death can happen within 1 to 18 days).
Is there effective treatment for infection with Naegleria fowleri?
- Because PAM is so rare, and because the infection progresses so quickly, effective treatments have been challenging to identify.
- There is some evidence that certain drugs may be effective, but we are still learning about the best drugs to treat these infections.
- Currently, PAM is treated with a combination of drugs, often including amphotericin B, azithromycin, fluconazole, rifampin, miltefosine, and dexamethasone.
- These drugs are used because they are thought to be effective against Naegleria fowleri and have been used to treat patients who survived.
- Miltefosine is the newest of these drugs. It has been shown to kill Naegleria fowleri in the laboratory and has been used to treat three survivors.
What connection does it have to climate change?
- With the rising global temperatures, the risk of contracting Naegleria fowleri infection will go up as the amoeba mainly thrives in warm freshwater bodies.
- The organism may sometimes survive at even higher temperatures and thrives best in high temperatures up to 46°C.
- Recent research has revealed that too much atmospheric carbon dioxide has caused lakes and rivers to warm up.
- For the amoeba to grow, these conditions offer a more favourable habitat.
GS PAPER III NEWS
Why in News?
The decision by the Defence Ministry to procure indigenous short-range ballistic surface-to-surface (SRBM) missile Pralay, a conventional weapon that has become ready for induction in just seven years, gives Indian military the heft to its war-fighting capabilities.
What is Pralay?
- The first conventional quasi-ballistic missile developed by India, Pralay, is a deterrent against any conventional missile strike from the country’s northern or western borders.
- It is a quasi-ballistic weapon, which means that while it has a low trajectory and is largely ballistic, it can manoeuvre in flight.
- Ballistic missiles are initially powered by a rocket or series of rockets in stages, but then follow an unpowered trajectory that arches upwards before descending to reach its intended target at high speed.
- The missile was created in such a way that it can destroy interceptor missiles and can change its path after covering a certain range mid-air.
- Pralay was formed through elements from multiple missile programmes that include the K-series of submarine-launched ballistic missiles and the ballistic defence shield programme.
- Pralay is powered with a solid propellant rocket motor and multiple new technologies and, according to sources, accuracy is a highlight of this missile.
- It is capable of carrying a conventional warhead of about 350 kg to 700 kg, which gives it a deadly punitive capability.
- It can carry a high explosive preformed fragmentation warhead, penetration-cum-blast (PCB) and runaway denial penetration submunition (RDPS).
- The Indian missile can be compared to China’s Dong Feng 12 and the Russian Iskander missile that has been used in the ongoing war with Ukraine.
- The canisterised Pralay missile, with a range of 150-500 kilometres, has been developed according to the specifications and requirement of the Army.
- Pralay will be the Army’s surface-to-surface missile with the longest range.
- The BrahMos supersonic cruise missile, with a stated range of about 290 kilometres, is another weapon in the Army’s inventory.
- Pralay will be India’s first tactical quasi-ballistic missile and will give the armed forces the capability to hit enemy positions and key installations in actual battlefield areas.
- The BrahMos supersonic cruise missile and Pralay will form the crux of India’s proposed Rocket Force.
- India will have two long-range conventional missiles, which will totally alter the tactical battlefield dynamics.
- This one will be the ballistic option, whereas the BrahMos will be a cruise option.
GS PAPER III NEWS
What are Orans?
What are Orans?
- Orans are preserved as Community Conserved Areas because of their religious significance.
- They consist of wooded areas, pastures, orchards, sacred groves, and ecosystems that are typically built around water sources like springs, rivulets, or man-made ponds.
- At the heart of an Oran, there is typically a shrine honoring a regional deity.
- The landmarks or geographic milestones that serve as their traditional limits were set by the indigenous and agro-pastoral populations that are connected to them.
- A solid community-territory relationship and an efficient government structure typically characterize orans.
Reasons for the Yatra
- Orans, which are little patches of forest in the middle of the vast Thar Desert and are named after local deities and mediaeval warriors, are significant in terms of religion and society.
- The Great Indian Bustard (GIB), a protected species under the Wildlife Protection Act and the state bird of Rajasthan, is one of India’s most severely endangered birds. Orans are its natural habitat.
- The most important threat to the majestic birds, according to the number of GIBs that have died in recent years due to collisions with electricity wires.
- In India, sacred groves are varying-sized forest patches that are communally conserved and that typically have a major religious significance for the community that is conserving them.
- The most of the time, it is located close to a perennial water source and typically has a dense cover of flora, including climbers, herbs, shrubs, and trees. There may also be a village god present.
- Sacred groves are thought to be representations of the archaic religion of nature and greatly aid in ecological preservation.
- The Wild Life (Protection) Amendment Act of 2002 created the protected area category of community reserves, which is legislation for extending government protection to community-held properties, which may include sacred groves.
- Indian sacred trees are frequently connected to temples, monasteries, shrines, places of pilgrimage, or graveyards.
- Sacred groves have been mentioned historically in Hindu, Jain, and Buddhist scriptures; examples include sacred tree groves in Hinduism and sacred deer parks in Buddhism.
- The term “sacred groves” can be used broadly to describe any natural area that is protected for spiritual reasons.
- Ancient texts like Kalidasa’s Vikramuurvashiiya and the treatise Vrukshayurveda have additional historical allusions to sacred trees.
- Green spaces like Nakshatravana are becoming increasingly popular.
Regulation of Sacred Groves activities
- In these regions, hunting and logging are typically tightly forbidden.
- On a sustainable basis, other forest uses including collecting honey and deadwood are occasionally permitted.
- NGOs collaborate with nearby villagers to safeguard these orchards.
- Community members traditionally, and in some cases still today, alternately guard the grove.
- Urbanization and resource overuse are two threats to the groves.
- While many of the groves are thought of be the homes of Hindu deities, several of them have recently undergone partial clearing in order to make way for shrines and temples.
Total groves in India
- In India, there are believed to be 14,000 sacred groves that serve as repositories for uncommon fauna and, more frequently, unique flora in rural and even urban environments.
- According to experts, there may be up to 100,000 sacred groves in existence.
- In several states, they go by different names:
- Sarna in Bihar
- Dev Van in Himachal Pradesh
- Devarakadu in Karnataka
- Kavu in Kerala
- Dev in Madhya Pradesh
- Devarahati or Devarai in Maharashtra
- Lai Umang in Maharashtra
- Law Kyntang or Asong Khosi in Meghalaya
- Kovil Kadu or Sarpa Kavu in Tamil Nadu