Daily Current Affairs for 28th June 2023

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The Quacquarelli Symonds (QS) World Rankings 2024

Why in news?

  • The QS World Rankings 2024 have been released, revealing the top educational institutes in India and globally.


  • Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Bombay has emerged as the highest-ranked educational institute in India, securing the 149th position globally.
  • This is the highest rank ever achieved by the institute, showcasing significant improvement from the previous year’s ranking of 172nd.
  • The rankings revealed that the Indian higher education system was the seventh most represented globally, with 45 universities on the list.
  • India ranked third in Asia, after China (71) and Japan (52).

Top Indian Institutes:

  • IIT Bombay: Ranked 149th globally, it is the highest-ranked institute in India.
  • IIT Delhi: Ranked 197th globally, slipping from 174th position last year.
  • Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore: Ranked 225th globally, experiencing a decline from the 155th spot last year.

Ranking Criteria

The rankings were based on nine indicators:

  1. Citations Per Faculty
  2. Employment Outcomes
  3. Employer Reputation
  4. Academic Reputation
  5. Faculty-Student Ratio
  6. Sustainability
  7. International Research Network
  8. International Faculty Ratio, And
  9. International Student Ratio

Global Rankings

  • Globally, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and the University of Cambridge retained the top two positions.
  • They were followed by the University of Oxford, which rose one rank to secure the third spot.
  • The United States and the United Kingdom dominated the top 10 rankings, with four institutes from each country.
  • Switzerland’s ETH Zurich and Singapore’s National University of Singapore (NUS) also made it to the top 10, with NUS entering the list for the first time.

Other Indian Institutes in Top Rankings

  • Apart from IIT Bombay and IIT Delhi, six Indian institutes featured in the top 300 rankings.
  • These include IIT Kharagpur (271), IIT Kanpur (278), IIT Madras (285), IIT Guwahati (364), IIT Roorkee (369), University of Delhi (407), Anna University (427), and IIT Indore (454).

Way forward

  • The report suggested that India should focus on attracting international students, fostering international collaborations, promoting diversity in faculty, and prioritizing sustainability efforts to enhance its global standing. By addressing these areas, India can further elevate its higher education system and solidify its position on the international stage.


Geographical Indication (GI) Tag

Why in news?

  • The Geographical Indications Registry in Chennai has granted Geographical Indication (GI) tags to seven unique products from Uttar Pradesh. These products highlight the rich cultural heritage and traditional craftsmanship of the state. Step by Step Guide for registration of Geographical Indication - iPleaders

Geographical Indication (GI) Tag products

The products include:

Amroha Dholak – A Musical Instrument:

  • Made of natural wood, the dholak is crafted using mango, jackfruit, and teakwood.
  • Carved hollow blocks of various sizes and shapes are fitted with animal skin, typically goatskin, to create the instrument.

Baghpat Home Furnishings – Handloom Products:

  • Baghpat and Meerut are renowned for their exclusive handloom home furnishing products.
  • Cotton yarn is used in the handloom weaving process, carrying on the tradition through generations.

Barabanki Handloom Product:

  • Barabanki and its neighboring areas have approximately 50,000 weavers and 20,000 looms engaged in handloom weaving.
  • This craft showcases the rich heritage and intricate workmanship of the region.

Kalpi Handmade Paper:

  • Kalpi has a longstanding association with paper-making, introduced formally by Munnalal Khaddari, a Gandhian, in the 1940s.
  • The handmade paper-making cluster in Kalpi involves over 5,000 craftsmen and approximately 200 units.

Mahoba Gaura Patthar Hastashlip – Stone Craft:

  • This stone craft is created using a unique and soft stone known as the “Pyro Flight Stone.”
  • The radiant white-colored Gaura stone, primarily found in the region, is used to make various craft items.

Mainpuri Tarkashi – Brass Wire Inlay Work:

  • Tarkashi is a popular art form from Mainpuri, featuring brass wire inlay work on wood.
  • Historically used for making khadaous (wooden sandals), it became a household necessity due to the traditional preference for leather being considered unclean.

Sambhal Horn Craft:

  • The Sambhal Horn Craft involves the use of raw materials sourced from deceased animals.
  • Skilled craftsmen hand-make various products using horn material, showcasing their expertise.


  • The recognition of these seven products from Uttar Pradesh with the Geographical Indication (GI) tag highlights the state’s rich cultural heritage and craftsmanship. These products not only represent the traditional skills and techniques but also contribute to the preservation of regional art forms and economic growth.


NCLAT Verdict in Antitrust Case


  • Google has filed an appeal in the Supreme Court against a verdict issued by the National Company Law Appellate Tribunal (NCLAT).


The legal battle between Google and the CCI garnered global attention as a high-profile conflict between a tech giant and a regulator.

  • The NCLAT upheld a penalty of Rs 1,338 crore imposed by the Competition Commission of India (CCI) on Google for its anti-competitive conduct in the Android ecosystem.
  • This appeal comes after the CCI itself appealed the NCLAT order in the Supreme Court.
  • India has a significant number of Android users, with approximately 97% of the 600 million smartphones in the country running on Android. The outcome of the case has implications for other governments and regulators worldwide.

NCLAT Verdict and Findings

  • In March, the NCLAT upheld the CCI’s penalty on Google and confirmed its findings from October, stating that Google abused its market dominance in the Android ecosystem.
  • It ruled that Google’s mandatory pre-installation of the entire Google Mobile Suite (GMS) on devices constituted unfair conditions imposed on original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), amounting to an abuse of dominant position.

Google’s Argument

  • Google’s appeal argues that the NCLAT “did not apply the requirement of proving harm for anti-competitive behavior” to several of the CCI’s directions that it upheld.
  • The company maintains that Android has benefitted Indian users, developers, and OEMs, playing a significant role in India’s digital transformation.

NCLAT’s Ruling and Relaxations

  • While upholding the CCI’s penalty, the NCLAT did offer some relaxations to Google in its final verdict.
  • It found that Google had reduced the ability and incentive of device manufacturers to develop and sell alternative versions of Android and Android Forks.
  • The NCLAT also determined that the CCI’s order did not violate the principles of “natural justice.”


  • With Google’s appeal against the NCLAT verdict, the case continues to be a significant legal dispute between the company and the Indian competition regulation authorities. The Supreme Court will now review the arguments presented by both parties and make a final decision on the matter.


National Exit Test (NExT)

Why in news?

  • The National Medical Commission (NMC) has announced the National Exit Test (NExT) for MBBS students.


  • The first batch of students admitted in 2019 will take the NExT, which will replace the Foreign Medical Graduates Exam (FMGE) and the National Eligibility-cum-Entrance Test-Postgraduate (NEET-PG).
  • The NMC recently provided detailed information about the NExT’s schedule, pattern, and modes of examination.


  • The NExT (National Exit Test) is a comprehensive medical licensing examination designed to evaluate the competence of medical graduates.
  • It is mandatory for students who have obtained their medical degrees from institutions approved by the National Medical Commission (NMC), as well as for overseas students.
  • The NMC is responsible for establishing a dedicated body called the Board of Examinations in Medical Sciences, which will conduct the centralized NExT exam.
  • This proposed autonomous board, as per the National Medical Commission (Amendment) Bill, 2022, will assume responsibility for organizing and administering the NExT examination.

Registration And Procedure

  • A mock test for NExT will be conducted on July 28, allowing students to familiarize themselves with the exam format.
  • The registration for the mock test will begin on June 28. This initiative aims to prepare students for the actual NExT examination.
  • The NExT examination follows a comprehensive Two-Phase Assessment approach.
  • Step 1 will be a computer-based examination consisting of multiple-choice questions (MCQs).
  • Step 2 will be a practical or clinical examination assessing clinical diagnosis, patient examination, clinical decision-making, and practical and communication skills.

Exam Frequency and Conducting Authority:

  • The All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), Delhi, will conduct NExT Step 1 in May and November.
  • Both Step 1 and Step 2 of NExT will be held twice a year.
  • Students will be eligible to sit for Step 2 after completing their internship, and the exam will be conducted in June and December.

Subject Coverage:

  • Step 1 of NExT will have six subject papers, covering various aspects of the MBBS curriculum. Applied aspects of related subjects, such as forensic medicine and community medicine, will be integrated into relevant clinical subjects.
  • Each paper will include 10% of items related to applied aspects.
  • Step 2 of NExT will evaluate competencies in clinical diagnosis, patient examination, clinical decision-making, practical skills, and communication skills.
  • This step will focus on subjects like medicine, surgery, pediatrics, ophthalmology, and orthopedics.
  • The NMC and authorized universities/institutions will determine the time schedule and modalities for Step 2 after the completion of the internship.


  • Streamlining the examination process for MBBS students, the implementation of the National Exit Test (NExT) signifies a significant step forward. With the aim of replacing the FMGE and NEET-PG, NExT effectively evaluates the theoretical knowledge, clinical skills, and practical abilities of aspiring medical professionals.

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