GS PAPER III NEWS
Carbon-intensive production of plastics
Why in News
- Carbon-intensive production of plastics is poised to emit more greenhouse gases than coal-fired power plants within this decade, undermining global efforts to combat climate change.
- This report by Bennington College and Beyond Plastics estimates that the plastics industry in the United States of America spends its entire lifecycle drilling for oil and gas and burning plastic waste to fuel its facilities. Releases less than 232 million tons of greenhouse gases each year.
- This emission is equivalent to 116 coal-fired power plants.
- The scale of the plastics industry’s greenhouse gas emissions is staggering, but it is equally worrying that only a small number of people in the government or business community are talking about it.
- Additionally, this report finds that petrochemical facilities are only clustered in 18 largely low-income and minority communities, accounting for 90% of the pollution.
- At least a dozen plastic production plants are under construction and 15 more are planned, resulting in emissions that would outweigh any benefits from moving to more renewable energy, including the impact of phasing out coal power.
- The report also states that the authorities have underestimated emissions and air pollution related to the various stages of plastic production and export of plastic waste.
- Per US regulations, the plastics industry is not required to report them and no federal agency tracks them.
GS PAPER III
US report on climate change
Why in News
- According to a US intelligence report, these 11 countries, including India, Afghanistan and Pakistan, are highly vulnerable in terms of their ability to prepare for and respond to environmental and social crises caused by climate change.
- The report on climate change has been released ahead of the 26th United Nations Climate Change Conference (COP26) in Glasgow, according to which, India is among the 11 countries that have been identified by United States intelligence agencies as ‘worrying countries’ regarding climate change. ‘ As it is.
- According to the report, these 11 countries, including India, Afghanistan and Pakistan, are highly vulnerable in terms of their ability to prepare for and respond to environmental and social crises caused by climate change.
- In a recent National Intelligence Estimates report by the National Intelligence Council, the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI) predicts that global warming will increase geopolitical tensions and risks to the national security of the United States by the year 2040. Will go
- This report has been released ahead of the 26th United Nations Climate Change Conference (COP26) to be held in Glasgow.
Important information about the report
- Heat, drought in these worrying countries and weak government in Afghanistan make the situation in this war-torn country all the more worrying.
- Meanwhile, in India and the rest of South Asia, water disputes are predicted to be important geopolitical flashpoints.
- The report highlighted the important role played by India and China in determining the trajectory of temperature rise.
- India and China are the fourth and first largest emitters respectively.
Climate change sequence
- Both these countries are increasing their total and per capita emissions. On the other hand, the United States and the European Union (EU), as the second and third largest emitters, are reducing their emissions.
- This US intelligence report also reported that, climate change will increase the risk of instability in small island states in Central Africa and the Pacific, which, when grouped together, are two of the most vulnerable regions globally. Huh.
GS PAPER III
Rules notified to promote clean energy
Why in News
- The Ministry of Power has notified rules to promote power sector sustainability and clean energy to meet India’s commitment to climate change.
- Investors and other stakeholders in the power sector were concerned about timely recovery of costs due to changes in laws, reduction in renewable energy and other related matters. The following rules notified by the Ministry of Power under the Electricity Act, 2003 are in the interest of power consumers and stakeholders:
Electricity (Timely Recovery of Cost due to Change in Law) Rules, 2021
- The Electricity (Promoting Generation from Renewable Sources of Energy after Compulsory Runs and Other Matters) Rules, 2021
- Timely recovery of cost due to change in law is very important as investment in power sector depends to a large extent on timely payment. Currently under the change in law, clearance takes time and this also affects the viability of the sector, as well as the developers who have invested in the projects, are also financially stressed. The new rules will help in creating a favorable investment climate in the country.
Efforts to change the energy sector
- Changes are taking place all over the world in the field of energy. India has also made commitments to bring about energy transformation.
- India has also announced an international commitment to install 175 GW of Renewable Energy (RE) capacity by 2022 and increase it to 450 GW by 2030.
- These rules will help in achieving the targets of Renewable Energy (RE) generation. This will ensure that consumers get green and clean electricity and a healthy environment is secured for the coming generation.
- A principle is also given for calculating the adjustment in the monthly fee due to the effect of the change in law.
- The rules also provide that a compulsorily running power plant shall not be cut off or brought under regulation for the purpose of fulfilling a qualification order or for any other commercial consideration in the production or supply of electricity.
- In the event of any technical disruption in the power grid or for reasons of safety of the power grid, the power generated from a power plant that operates compulsorily may be reduced or regulated.
- The provisions of the Indian Electricity Grid Code shall be followed for power cut or its regulation. In the event of supply cut from the compulsorily running power plant, compensation shall be payable by the purchaser to the power plant at the rates specified in the agreement for purchase or supply of power.
- The producer of Renewable Energy (RE) is also allowed to sell the electricity in the power exchange and charge a reasonable cost. This helps in the collection of revenue by the producer and also makes electricity available in the electricity grid for the use of the consumers.
- These rules also provide for the arrangement of an intermediary buyer for the purchase of electricity for the distribution licensees. In this regard, the rules, inter alia, state that “the intermediate buyer shall be an agency designated by the Central Government or a State Government and issued by the Central Government under section 63 of the Act for sale to one or more distribution licensees”. Power can be purchased through a transparent process of bidding as per the guidelines.
GS PAPER III
Incentive to IVF of buffaloes to improve livestock in the country
Why in News
- For the first time in India, buffalo insemination was done with the IVF technique of artificial insemination and the calf was born.
- This buffalo is of bunny breed. With this, OPU-IVF technology has reached the next level in India.
- The first IVF calf was born after six IVF insemination of bunny breed buffalo.
- This process was done by Vinay L., farmer of Sushila Agro Farms. It was completed by going to Vala’s house.
- This farm is located in Dhanej village of Somnath district of Gujarat.
- In Vitro Fertilization-IVF
- The Prime Minister, Shri Narendra Modi, when he visited the Kutch region of Gujarat on December 15, 2020, had discussed about the breed of Bunny buffalo. On the very next day, i.e. on December 16, 2020, it was planned to start the process of extracting the eggs (OPU) of bunny buffaloes and developing them in the womb of the buffalo (In-Vitro Fertilization-IVF).
- Scientists Vinay L. Vala prepared three buffaloes of Banni breed of Sushila Agro Farms located at Dhanej in Somnath district of Gujarat for conception.
- Scientists extracted 20 eggs from the ovary of a buffalo using an intravaginal culture device (IVC).
- A total of 20 eggs from one of the three buffaloes were extracted through IVC procedure.
- In fact, out of 20 eggs extracted from a donor, 11 became embryos. Nine embryos were established, from which three IVF pregnancies came into existence.
- Five eggs were extracted from the second donor, from which five embryos (100 percent) were prepared. Four of the five embryos were selected to be implanted, and the process resulted in two pregnancies.
- Four eggs were extracted from the third donor, two embryos were developed and implanted and a conception occurred.
- In total, 18 embryos developed from 29 eggs.
- Its BL rate was 62 percent. Fifteen embryos were established and six pregnancies took place from them. The conception rate was 40 percent. Of these six pregnancies, the first IVF calf was born today.
- This is the country’s first bunny calf, born through the IVF technique of artificial insemination.
- The government and the scientific community see immense potential in the IVF process of buffaloes and are striving to improve the livestock of the country.