GS PAPER II NEWS
Pradhan Mantri Garib Kalyan Anna Yojana (PMGKAY)
Why in News
- The announcement made by the Prime Minister in his address to the nation on June 7, 2021 in the public interest and as part of the economic initiatives in the context of COVID-19, the Cabinet approved the Pradhan Mantri Garib Kalyan Anna Yojana (PMGKAY-Phase Five) for another four months, That is, the extension has been approved from December 2021 to March 2022, under which all the beneficiaries covered under the National Food Security Act (NFSA) [Antyodaya Anna Yojana and priority households] including Direct Benefit Transfer (DBT) will be given per capita , 5 kg of food grains per month will continue to be received free of cost.
- The first and second phase of the scheme was operational from April to June 2020 and July to November, 2020 respectively.
- The third phase of the scheme was operational from May to June, 2021. The fourth phase of the scheme is currently underway during July-November, 2021.
- The fifth phase of the PAGKAY scheme will run from December 2021 to March 2022, with an estimated additional food subsidy of Rs 53344.52 crore.
- The total off take of food grains for the fifth phase of PMGKAY is likely to be around 163 lakh metric tonnes.
- Keeping in view the economic constraints caused by the unexpected spread of the COVID-19 pandemic in the country last year, the government had announced in March 2020 that around 80 crore beneficiaries of the National Food Security Act (NFSA) would be provided the Pradhan Mantri Garib Kalyan Anna Yojana. Under the scheme, an additional five kilograms of free food grains (rice/wheat) will be given per person, per month, which will be more than the regular monthly NFSA food grains, ie food grains payable regularly on their ration card, so that the poor, needy And do not deprive the at-risk households/beneficiaries due to non-availability of proper food grains during economic crisis.
- So far, under PM-GKAY (phase one to four), the department has allocated a total of about 600 lakh metric tonnes to the States/UTs, which is equivalent to foodgrain subsidy of about Rs 2.07 lakh crore.
- Distribution under PMGKAY-Phase IV is currently underway.
- The performance of PMGKAY-Phase V is expected to remain at the same high level of the earlier phases, given the experience of the earlier phases.
- Overall, the PMGKAY phase one to five will cost the government about Rs 2.60 lakh crore.
GS PAPER II
Why in News
- The Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs, chaired by the Prime Minister, approved the continuation of the Rs 2,177 crore umbrella scheme “Marine Services, Modelling, Applications, Resources and Technology (O-SMART)” of the Ministry of Earth Sciences during the period 2021-26. has been approved.
- The plan includes seven sub-schemes namely Ocean Technology, Ocean Modeling and Consultancy Services (OMAS), Ocean Observation Network (OON), Marine Non-living Resources, Marine Living Resources and Eco-Systems (MLRE) ), operation and maintenance of coastal research and research vessels.
- These sub-schemes will be supported by National Institute of Ocean Technology (NIOT), Chennai, Indian National Center for Marine Information Services (INCOIS), Hyderabad, National Center for Polar and Ocean Research (NCPOR), Goa, Center for Marine Living Resources and Ecology (CMLRE), Kochi, and is being implemented by autonomous/affiliated institutions of the Ministry like National Center for Coastal Research (NCCR), Chennai.
- Simultaneously, other national institutions are also involved in this work. For this scheme a fleet of oceanographic and coastal research ships of the Ministry provides necessary support in the research work.
- Ocean related research and technology development
- The development of ocean-related research and technology in India was initiated by the Department of Ocean Development (DOD), which was established in 1981.
- It was later merged with the Ministry of Earth Sciences and since then this work is going on continuously.
- The Ministry of Earth Sciences has gained a significant place in oceanographic research through technology development, forecasting services, field installations, explorations, surveys, technology demonstrations for national benefit.
- To provide continuous observations and services based on exploratory surveys for continuous observation of our oceans, development of technologies and exploitation of our marine resources (both living and non-living) and to promote pioneering research in oceanography O-SMART scheme is being implemented by involving science research activities.
- Many notable achievements have been made through the activities of this scheme. The most important being India’s recognition as a leading investor in the International Seabed Authority (ISA) to conduct extensive research on the mining of deep-sea polymetallic nodules (PMNs) and hydrothermal sulfides in the allotted region of the Indian Ocean.
- Developing technology for setting up desalination plants using low temperature desalination in the islands of Lakshadweep is also an important achievement.
- In addition, India’s oceanographic activities now extend from the Arctic to the Antarctic region, including large oceanic spaces, which have been monitored through in-situ and satellite-based observations.
- India has taken a leadership role in the implementation of the Indian Ocean component of the Global Ocean Observation System in the intergovernmental sector.
- The Oceanographic Commission has been deployed and maintained through both Moored and Drifters observation networks in the Indian Ocean.
- These observation networks provide marine forecasting services for potential fishing locations and natural coastal hazard warnings, which provide cyclone and tsunami-associated storm warnings to stakeholders in neighboring countries as well as several countries.
- A state-of-the-art immediate warning system for maritime disasters like tsunami, storm surge has been established at INCOIS, Hyderabad to provide services to India and the Indian Ocean countries, which has been recognized by UNESCO.
- Comprehensive survey is conducted keeping in view the national interest for identification of ocean resources, ocean related warning services, navigation etc. in Indian Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) and continental shelf of India.
- Assessment of living resources in marine eco-systems including EEZ and mapping of Indian Ocean depth resources for the purpose of conservation and protection of marine biodiversity.
- The ministry is also monitoring the health of India’s coastal seas including shoreline changes and marine eco-system.
- O-SMART being a multidisciplinary sustainable scheme, the existing extensive research and technology development activities will enhance the capacity building of the nation in the field of oceanography at the international level.
- The current decade has been declared by the United Nations (UN) as the Decade of Oceanography for Sustainable Development and continuation of this plan will strengthen our determination in global oceanographic research and technology development.
- The continuation of this scheme will make a significant contribution to the National Policy on Blue Economy for effective and efficient use of vast ocean resources in a sustainable manner.
- Efforts are being made to achieve the United Nations Sustainable Development Goal-14 for the conservation and sustainable use of oceans, seas and marine resources through coastal research and marine biodiversity related activities.
GS PAPER II
National Apprenticeship Training Scheme
Why in News
- The Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs (CCEA), chaired by the Prime Minister, has approved apprenticeship training for the period 2021-22 to 2025-26 (up to 31 March 2026) under the National Apprenticeship Training Scheme (NATS) of the Ministry of Education. It has given its approval for providing stipend assistance of Rs 3,054 crore to the trainees.
- About 9 lakh apprentices will be trained by industry and commercial organizations.
- NATS is a well-established scheme of the Government of India, which has contributed to enhancing the employability of students who have successfully undergone apprenticeship training.
- Apprentices completing graduate and diploma programs in Engineering, Humanities, Science and Commerce will be given a stipend of Rs.9,000/- and Rs.8,000/- per month respectively.
- The government has approved an expenditure of over Rs 3,000 crore for the next five years, which is nearly 4.5 times the expenditure during the last five years.
- This increased expenditure on apprenticeship is in line with the importance given to apprenticeship by the National Education Policy 2020.
- Keeping in view the emphasis being given by the government about “Sabka Saath, Sabka Vikas-Sabka Vishwas, Sabka Prayas”, besides engineering stream students, humanities, science and commerce students will also be included in this scheme. The scope of NATS has been further expanded for
- The objective of the scheme is to raise the skill level standards by strengthening the skill eco-system, as a result of which the scheme will provide employment to about 7 lakh youth in the next five years.
- NATS will provide apprenticeships in emerging sectors like Mobile Manufacturing, Medical Device Manufacturing, Pharma Sector, Electronics/Technology Products, and Automobile Sectors under Production Linked Incentives (PLIs). The scheme will also create skilled manpower for the connectivity/logistics industry sectors identified under ‘Gatishakti’.
GS PAPER III
Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana (Urban)
Why in News
- A total of 3.61 lakh houses were approved for construction under affordable housing, beneficiary oriented construction, as well as vertical slum redevelopment in partnership with PMAY-U.
- The construction of houses is going on in various phases under Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana-Urban.
- With this, the total number of houses sanctioned under the mission now stands at 1.14 crore, of which more than 89 lakh are under construction and 52.5 lakh houses have been completed and distributed to the beneficiaries.
- The total investment under the mission is 7.52 lakh crore and of which 1.85 lakh crore is in the form of central assistance.
- Till date, Rs 1.13 lakh crore has already been released.
- The Central Sanctioning and Monitoring Committee also gave approval for modification of projects to be transferred in the construction of 3.74 lakh houses from 14 States/UTs.
- In addition, the Secretary, Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs stressed on expediting and completing the housing construction across the country under PMAY-U within the stipulated time so that the target of ‘Housing for All’ by 2022 is achieved. Can you
- An e-finance module was also launched by the Secretary, Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs in addition to the meeting of the Central Sanctioning and Monitoring Committee.
- This e-finance module has been integrated with all the modules of the MIS system of Pradhan Mantri Shehri Awas Yojana – Urban and is designed under the MIS system of Pradhan Mantri Shehri Awas Yojana – Urban (PMAY-U MIS).
- The objective of which is to provide a unique platform to all stakeholders for disbursement of funds through Direct Benefit Transfer mode and authentication of beneficiaries.
- Secretary, Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (MoHUA) also approved proposals under Affordable Rental Housing Complexes (-AHRC) – Model (Model) 2 – in Telangana and Tamil Nadu.
GS PAPER II
Health Care Loan Agreement Why in News
Why in News
- The Government of India and the Asian Development Bank (ADB) have signed a $300 million loan to strengthen and improve access to comprehensive primary health care in urban areas in 13 states.
- It will benefit more than 256 million urban residents including 51 million residents of slum areas.
- The program was renamed as Prime Minister’s Ayushman Bharat Health Infrastructure Mission (PM-ABHIM) – the flagship health initiatives of the Government of India – Ayushman Bharat Health and Wellness Center (AB-HWC) and Pradhan Mantri Aatmanirbhar Swasth Bharat Yojana (PM-ASBY) given, will provide assistance.
- It will expand the availability and access of quality primary health care services to the underprivileged population, especially in urban areas.
- The program supports the government’s efforts to bridge health care gaps by strengthening the institutional capacity, operation and management of urban health and wellness centers at the central, state and municipal levels.
- This program will be implemented in the urban areas of 13 states- Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Haryana, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Telangana and West Bengal.
- In addition to pandemic response, the program also promotes the use of urban HWCs with the provision of comprehensive primary health care packages including community outreach services such as activities to raise awareness of non-communicable diseases and health care options, especially for women. Will give
- Supplies and health information systems for primary health care will be upgraded through digital tools, quality assurance mechanisms, private sector collaborations and partnerships.
- Provides a $2 million technical assistance grant from ADB’s Japan Fund for Program Implementation and Coordination, Capacity Building, Innovation, Information Sharing and Support for the Application of Best Best Practices throughout the Health Care System, and Poverty Alleviation Is.
Ayushman Bharat Program
- Ayushman Bharat program was launched in 2018. It aims to improve access to comprehensive primary health care as a key strategy for achieving universal health coverage in India.
- The spread of the coronavirus pandemic (Covid-19) had put additional strain on the country’s health system.
- The Government had launched PM-ASBY (later renamed as PM-ABHIM) taking a long-term approach to prepare for future pandemics and other emergencies.