GS PAPER I & II NEWS
‘BIJOYA SANSKRITIK MAHOTSAV’
Why in News
- On December 16, 2021, 50 years will be completed since the liberation of Bangladesh and India’s victory over Pakistan in the Indo-Pak war of 1971.
- Golden Victory Year celebrations are being organized across the country to commemorate this historic event in the history of India.
- The cultural event called “Victory Cultural Festival” aims to showcase the cultural relations between India and Bangladesh during the war.
- The event is being organized by the Eastern Command of the Indian Army in Kolkata from 26 to 29 September, 2021.
- Various cultural programs including film screenings, theater plays, music festivals and band performances are planned for five days at Rabindra Sadan and Nandan Convention Center Kolkata.
- Many tales of valor of Indian Army soldiers and liberation warriors in various historical battles fought by these brave warriors in the 1971 Liberation War will be brought to public by organizing “Victory Cultural Festival”.
Liberation of Bangladesh and Indo-Pak War of 1971
- After the liberation war of Bangladesh on December 16, 1971, Pakistani soldiers surrendered to the Indian Army in Dhaka.
- This was the largest surrender by any army since World War II, as more than 90,000 POWs of Pakistan surrendered.
- The war formally began on December 3, when the Pakistani Air Force carried out simultaneous strikes in the airspace on India’s western front.
- Pakistan’s objective was to engage most of India’s forces in fighting on India’s western front, in order to prevent military operations in East Pakistan in aid of Bengali civilians who were fighting against Pakistani forces.
GS PAPER III
New Mangalore Port
Why in News
- The Union Minister for Ports, Shipping and Waterways will inaugurate and lay the foundation stone for three projects at New Mangalore Port. These include laying the foundation stone for the Truck Parking Terminal and revamping the US Mallya Gate and dedicating the newly constructed Business Development Center to the nation.
- Due to better internal connectivity, container and other general cargo traffic is increasing rapidly at this port. About 500 trucks are moving daily from New Mangalore port to Dakshina Kannada district and remote places outside Karnataka state for clearance of cargo.
- Hard surface truck parking terminal has been constructed for an area of 16000 square meters.
- An additional truck parking area of 17000 square meters will be developed.
- Concrete footpath, gate house, restaurant and hostel facility will be provided in 2022-23.
About New Mangalore Port
- The eastern gate of the New Mangalore Port Trust is called US Mallya Gate, named after the founder of the port. It is opposite to NH-66.
- This work is likely to be completed by March 2022.
- New Mangalore Port, the only major port in Karnataka, is ideally situated between the ports of Cochin and Goa.
- The infrastructure is designed to enable the ships to rapidly focus on the logistic requirements of the customers.
- The port has 15 fully operational berths that handle coal and other cargo containers.
- Being environmentally conscious, the port majorly pursues ecological improvement projects developing green belts and clean-up drives in the Gulf.
GS PAPER III
World’s highest charging station
Why in News
- World’s highest electric charging station has been built at Kaza in Lahaul-Spiti district of Himachal Pradesh.
- The world’s tallest electric vehicle charging station was inaugurated to promote a sustainable environment.
- It was inaugurated by SDM Mahendra Pratap Singh on 23 September 2021.
- Go-Ego networking company has set up a charging station for electric vehicles in Kaza.
- Establishment of charging station for electric vehicles in Kaza will be of great benefit and will be meaningful for green environment.
- Now any tourist who wants to come to Spiti with electric vehicles can easily come. They will no longer have to worry about charging their vehicles.
- Now you can charge your vehicle at the charging station in Kaza. In this charging station, the facility of charging electric vehicles will be available.
- The inauguration of this charging station will play an important role in protecting the environment of the region.
- Passengers using electric vehicles will be able to avail the charging facilities at Kaza.
- On trial basis, two electric scooters were successfully charged.
- This is the world’s highest electric vehicle charging station at 500 feet in Kaza. This is the first station here. This will also help in curbing vehicular pollution.
Kaza: At a Glance
- Kaza is a town in the Lahaul-Spiti district of Himachal Pradesh.
- It is situated on the banks of Spiti river at an altitude of 3650 meters above sea level.
- The environment here is a cold desert.
- Kaza is situated at the foot of a steep peak on the left bank of the Spiti river.
GS PAPER III
Why in News
- The Ministry of Defense issued an order for the construction of Heavy Vehicle Factory Avadi, Chennai for the supply of 118 Main Battle Tanks (MBTs) Arjun Mk-1A for the Indian Army.
- This production order to HVF, Avadi opens up huge opportunities in defense manufacturing to over 200 Indian vendors including MSMEs, providing employment to around 8,000 people.
- It will be a flagship project to demonstrate indigenous capability in state-of-the-art defense technologies.
- This order of Rs 7,523 crore will further boost the ‘Make in India’ initiative in the defense sector and is a major step towards achieving ‘Self-reliant India’ as envisaged by Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi.
- The Prime Minister handed over the MBT Arjun Mk-1A to the Chief of Army Staff General MM Naravane in Chennai on February 14, 2021.
About MBT Mk-1A Arjun Tank
- The state-of-the-art MBT Mk-1A is a new variant of the Arjun tank which is designed to enhance fire power, maneuverability and combat capability.
- With a total of 72 new features and more indigenous material, the Mk-1 variant will ensure smooth all-terrain maneuverability apart from the ability to strike targets accurately during day and night.
- It has been designed and developed by the Defense Research and Development Organization (DRDO) in a series of upgrades to the main battle tank Arjun MBT in service with the Indian Army.
- The Mk-1A is equipped with an unstoppable multi-layered defense provided by a range of precision and superior firepower, all-terrain mobility and advanced technology systems.
- It can engage with the enemy in day and night conditions and in both static and dynamic modes.
- Based on these capabilities, this indigenous MBT proves to be at par with any contemporary tank of its class across the world. This tank is specially configured and designed for the Indian conditions and hence it is suitable for deployment to defend the borders in an effective manner.
- MBT Arjun Mk-1A has been designed and developed by Combat Vehicle Research and Development Establishment (CVRDE) along with other laboratories of DRDO within two years (2010-12).
- Development activities started from June 2010 and in June 2012 the tank was grounded for user trials.
- It took only two years to develop and field MBT Arjun Mk-1A for user trials from user requirement.
- During the year 2012-2015, extensive test evaluations of automotive and adequate firing of various types of ammunition were conducted covering 7000 kms (both in DRDO and user trials) in multiple phases.
GS PAPER III
- Why in News
- NASA has announced on September 20, 2021 that it will land a rover in 2023 to search for water and ice in an area of the Moon’s South Pole known as Noble Crater.
- NASA’s Volatile Investigation Polar Exploration Rover (VIPER) will land on the Nobel Crater region of the Moon’s South Pole to map the surface of this region to detect water. As a part of the Artemis mission, this VIPER will be launched on a SpaceX Falcon-Heavy rocket as part of NASA’s Commercial Lunar Payload Services initiative.
About the Moon’s Nobel Crater
- Nobel Crater is an impact crater in the South Pole region of the Moon. It was formed due to a collision with another small celestial body. It is almost permanently covered in shade which creates the perfect environment for the existence of snow.
- The South Pole of the Moon is one of the coldest regions in our Solar System. No mission has ever landed on the surface of the Moon to detect it.
What is VIPER?
- VIPER, known as the Volatile Investigating Polar Exploration Rover, is a mobile robot developed by NASA that will land in the area of the Moon’s South Pole known as Nobel Crater in the year 2023.
- VIPER is similar in size to a golf cart. It measures 5 ft x 5 ft x 8 ft (1.5 m x 1.5 m x 2.5 m) and weighs 950 pounds (430 kg). The VIPER has a top speed of 0.5 mph (0.8 kph).
- This VIPER rover will visit the Moon for a mission duration of 100 Earth days which is 3 cycles of lunar day and night.
What will this VIPER rover do?
- This VIPER rover will detect the presence of water and other potential resources in the Moon’s South Pole and its vicinity. This VIPER rover will study the origin, evolution and history of the Moon and understand the lunar environment for future lunar Artemis missions. It will also study how the accumulated water (ice) on the Moon came about.
- This solar-charged rover will study the Nobel Crater region with an estimated surface area of 36 square miles (93 square kilometers). This VIPER rover from NASA will be the first rover with headlights as it will explore the dark side of the Moon where sunlight never reaches.