Daily Current Affairs for 23th June 2022

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Four new corals recorded from Indian waters

GS Paper 3: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.
Important for:
Prelims: General issues on Environmental Ecology, Biodiversity and Climate Change – Corals and Coral bleaching
Mains Level: Not Much

Why in News

• Scientists have recorded four species of azooxanthellate corals for the first time from Indian waters.
Azooxanthellate corals
• Azooxanthellate corals are a group of corals that do not contain zooxanthellae and derive nourishment not from the sun but from capturing different forms of plankton.
• These groups of corals are deep-sea representatives, with the majority of species reporting from between 200 m to 1000 m.
• Their occurrences are also reported from shallow coastal waters.
• Zooxanthellate corals, meanwhile, are restricted to shallow waters.

Where have they been found?

These new corals were found from the waters of Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
o Four species of azooxanthellate corals were recorded for the first time from the waters of Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
o Truncatoflabellum crassum , T. incrustatum, T. aculeatum , and T. irregulare were previously found from Japan to the Philippines and Australian waters while only T. crassum was reported within the range of Indo-West Pacific distribution including the Gulf of Aden and the Persian Gulf.

Zoological Survey of India:

• It was established on 1st July, 1916 to promote survey, exploration and research leading to the advancement in our knowledge of various aspects of exceptionally rich life of the erstwhile ´British Indian Empire´.
• The survey has its genesis in the establishment of the Zoological Section of the Indian Museum at Calcutta in 1875.
• It has maintained its primary objectives unchanged from its inception.


The activities of the ZSI are coordinated by the Conservation and Survey Division under the Ministry of Environment, Forest, and Climate Change. Its functions are as follows:
1. ZSI publishes the Red Data Book on Indian Animals. It was first published in 1983 and is similar to the Red Data Book published by IUCN.
2. Publication of results including Fauna of India, Fauna of States, and Fauna of Conservation Areas.
3. Training, Capacity Building, and Human Resource Development of the people involved.
4. Geographic Information System (GIS) and Remote Sensing studies on recorded animal diversity as well as on threatened species.
5. It works for the development of Environmental Information System (ENVIS) and Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) Centers.
• CITES is a multilateral treaty to protect endangered plants and animals.
Conducts collaborative research programs on “Biodiversity” with other organizations in India and abroad.

Santhal tribe

GS Paper 1: Social Empowerment
Important for:
Prelims: Santhal Tribe, Santhal rebellion
Mains Level: Upliftment of Tribal people
Why in news
Droupadi Murmu has been nominated as the first tribal woman for the post of President of India belongs to Santhal Tribe.

About Santhal tribe

o The Santal or Santhal, are a Munda ethnic group native to India.
o Santhal is the third largest schedule tribe community in the country after Gond and Bhil.
o Santhals are the largest tribe in Jharkhand in terms of population and are also found in the states of Assam, Tripura, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Odisha and West Bengal.
o They are the largest ethnic minority in northern Bangladesh’s Rajshahi Division and Rangpur Division.
o They have a sizeable population in Nepal and Bhutan.
o Sohrai is the principal festival of Santal community.
o Baha, Karam, Dansai, Sakrat, Mahmore, Rundo and Magsim are important festivals.
o They traditionally accompany many of their dances during these festivals with two drums: the Tamak‘ and the Tumdak’.
o Chadar Badar, a form of puppetry known also as Santal puppetry, is a folk show involving wooden puppets placed in a small cage which acts as the stage.

Santhal Rebelion

• The Santhal rebellion (also known as the Sonthal rebellion or the Santhal Hool), was a rebellion in present-day Jharkhand, Eastern India against both the British East India Company (BEIC) and zamindari system by the Santhal people.
• It started on June 30, 1855 and on November 10, 1855, martial law was proclaimed by the East India Company which lasted until January 3, 1856 when martial law was suspended and the rebellion was eventually suppressed by the Presidency armies.
• The rebellion was led by the four Murmu Brothers – Sidhu, Kanhu, Chand and Bhairav.


• The rebellion of the Santhals began as a reaction to end the revenue system of the British East India Company (BEIC), usury practices, and the zamindari system in India; in the tribal belt of what was then known as the Bengal Presidency.
• It was a revolt against the oppression of the colonial rule propagated through a distorted revenue system, enforced by the local zamindars, the police and the courts of the legal system set up by the British East India Company.
• The Santhals lived in and depended on forests. In 1832, the BEIC demarcated the Damin-i-koh region in present day Jharkhand and invited Santhals to settle in the region.
• Due to promises of land and economic amenities a large numbers of Santhals came to settle from Cuttack, Dhalbhum, Manbhum, Hazaribagh, Midnapore etc.
• Soon, mahajans and zamindars, as tax-collecting intermediaries employed by the BEIC, dominated the economy.
• Many Santhals became victims of corrupt money lending practices. They were lent money at exorbitant rates. When they were unable to repay the loan, their lands were forcibly taken and they were forced into bonded labour. This sparked the Santal rebellion by Sidhu and Kanhu Murmu, two brothers who led the Santhals during the rebellion


GS Paper 2: Important International institutions, agencies and fora- their structure, mandate

Important for:

Prelims: G7 and other such groups
Mains Level: G7 and importance for India
Why in News
The Indian Prime Minister is going to attend the upcoming G7 summit in Germany

Group of Seven (G7)

o The Group of Seven (G7) is an inter-governmental political forum consisting of Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom and the United States.
o The European Union is a ‘non-enumerated member’.
o Its members are the world’s largest IMF advanced economies and wealthiest liberal democracies; the group is officially organized around shared values of pluralism and representative government
o Members are great powers in global affairs and maintain mutually close political, economic, social, legal, environmental, military, religious, cultural, and diplomatic relations.
o From 2022, Germany has taken over the rotating presidency of the G7.

The previous Group of 8

o The G-7 was known as the ‘G-8’ for several years after the original seven were joined by Russia in 1997.
o The Group returned to being called G-7 after Russia was expelled as a member in 2014 following the latter’s annexation of the Crimea region of Ukraine.

Meetings and summits

• Each member state’s head of government or head of state, along with the Commission President and Council President of the European Union, meet annually at the G7 Summit;
• Other high-ranking officials of the G7 and the EU meet throughout the year.
• Representatives of other states and international organizations are often invited as guests, with Russia having been a formal member (as part of the Group of Eight) from 1997 to 2014.

Legal basis and Headquarter

• The G7 is not based on a treaty and has no permanent secretariat or office
• Its presidency rotates annually among the member states, with the presiding state setting the group’s priorities, and hosting and organizing its summit.
Significance of G7
• While lacking a legal or institutional basis, the G7 is considered to wield significant international influence
• As of 2020, the G7 group accounts for:
• Over 50 percent of global net wealth (which is $418 trillion)
• 32 to 46 percent of global gross domestic product
• Approximately 10 percent of the world’s population.
• It has catalyzed or spearheaded several major global initiatives, including efforts to combat the HIV/AIDS pandemic, provide financial aid to developing countries, and address climate change through the 2015 Paris Agreement.
• The group has been criticized for its allegedly outdated and limited membership, narrow global representation, and ineffectualness. It is also opposed by anti-globalization groups, which often protest at summits.
Relevance of G7 for India
• India will get more voice, more influence and more power by entering the G7.
• After UN Security Council (UNSC), this is the most influential grouping.
• If the group is expanded it will collectively address certain humongous issues in the global order.
• Diplomatically, a seat at the high table could help New Delhi further its security and foreign policy interests, especially at the nuclear club and UNSC reforms.
• It will further protect its interests in the Indian Ocean.

Keibul Lamjao National Park

GS Paper 3: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.
Important for:
Prelims: Keibul Lamjao National Park and species flora & fauna there
Mains Level: Not Much
• The Keibul Lamjao National Park is a national park in the Bishnupur district of the state of Manipur in India.
• It is the only floating park in the world, located in North East India, and an integral part of Loktak Lake.
• The national park is characterized by floating decomposed plant material locally called phumdi.
• It was created in 1966 as a wildlife sanctuary to preserve the natural habitat of the endangered Eld’s deer – Sangai Deer. In 1977, it was gazetted as national park.

About Sangai Deer

The sangai is an endemic and endangered subspecies of Eld’s deer found only in Manipur, India.
It is the state animal of Manipur.
Its common English name is Manipur brow-antlered deer or Eld’s deer.
It is also known as dancing deer.
It is found in its natural habitat only at Keibul Lamjao National Park over the floating biomass locally called phumdi in the southeastern part of Loktak Lake.

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