GS PAPER II NEWS
National Steering Committee on National Curriculum
Why in News
- The Ministry of Education has constituted a National Steering Committee to prepare the National Curriculum Framework.
The members of the committee are as follows:
- K Kasturirangan (Chairman): He is an Indian space scientist who headed the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) from 1994 to 2003. He has received three major civilian honors from the Government of India – Padma Shri (1982), Padma Bhushan (1992) and Padma Vibhushan (2000). He was the chairman of the drafting committee of the NEP, 2020.
- Mahesh Chandra Pant
- Govind Prasad Sharma
- Najma Akhtar
- TV Kattimani
- Michelle Danino
- Milind Kamble
- Jagbir Singh
- Manjul Bhargava
- MK Sridhar
- Dheer Jhingaran
- Shankar Maruwada
Important Rules for the Committee
- As per the vision of NEP 2020, the committee will develop four National Curriculum Framework- i.e. National Curriculum Framework for School Education, National Curriculum for Young Child Care and Education, National Curriculum Framework for Teacher Education and Adult Education. National Curriculum Framework for
- The committee will discuss various aspects of school education, care and education of young children (ECCE), teacher education and adult education, taking into account all the recommendations of NEP 2020 relating to these four areas to propose curriculum reforms.
- The committee will discuss the papers finalized by the National Focus Groups on various aspects of all the above four areas.
- The committee will take inputs from the State Curriculum Framework on the Tech platform for designing the National Curriculum.
- All National Curriculum Frameworks will also explain the impact of COVID-19 pandemic-like situations on the respective sectors in future.
- While convening its meetings, the committee may invite subject experts, scholars, academicians etc. as and when necessary and hold discussions. Simultaneously, it may decide on the next course of action while working within the time frame to outline the national curriculum.
- The Committee will finalize the National Curriculum Framework after incorporating suggestions from various stakeholders such as the Executive Committee (EC) of the States/UTs and NCERT and also the General Body (GB) and the Central Advisory Board of Education (CABE) meetings. Will give
- The term of the National Steering Committee will be three years from the date of its notification.
- Director of NCERT will assist the SC to complete his module.
- These rules can be extended as per the requirement.
GS PAPER III
International Blue Flag Certification
Why in News
- In yet another acknowledgment of India’s commitment to protect and preserve pristine coastal and marine ecosystems through holistic management of resources, two new beaches this year – Kovalam in Tamil Nadu and Eden in Puducherry – have been recognized globally. Received and awarded the prestigious International Eco-Label ‘Blue Flag’ certification.
About Blue Flag Certification
- The Foundation for Environmental Education in Denmark (FEE) provides a globally recognized eco-label – Blue Flag certification.
- It has also re-certified for 8 nominated beaches Shivrajpur-Gujarat, Ghoghala-Diu, Kasarkode and Padubidri-Karnataka, Kappad-Kerala, Rushikonda-Andhra Pradesh, Golden-Odisha and Radhanagar-Andaman & Nicobar. These beaches were given Blue Flag certification last year.
- This certification is awarded by an international jury consisting of members from IUCN, UNWQTO, UNEP, UNESCO, etc.
- FEE Denmark regularly monitors and observes 33 strict compliance standards at all times.
- ‘Blue Flag’ signifies 100 percent compliance for these 33 strict norms and good health of the beach.
- Environment and Aesthetics Management Services (BEAMs)
- Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change has launched a highly acclaimed and flagship program Beach Environment and Aesthetics Management Services (BEAMs) in order to ‘Sustainable Development’ of Coastal Regions of India.
- It is an initiative launched by the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change under the ICZM approach for sustainable development of coastal areas of India.
- Its main objective is to conserve pristine coastal and marine ecosystems through holistic management of resources.
- The objective was to achieve the globally recognized and prestigious international eco-label ‘Blue Flag’ certification.
- The BEAMS program aims to reduce pollution in the coastal ocean, promote sustainable development of coastal goods, protect coastal ecosystems and natural resources, and encourage local authorities and stakeholders to maintain cleanliness, sanitation and hygiene for beach-goers. , and strictly directed to maintain high standards of safety as per coastal environment and regulations.
- During the last 3 years our Ministry has achieved commendable results in environmental management of these 10 beaches. Some of these are detailed below:
- Rehabilitation and nurturing of sand dunes in 95,000 square meters (approx.) with native plantations.
- In the last 3 years, there has been 85 percent reduction in marine waste and 78 percent in marine plastics.
- Responsible scientific disposal of 750 tonnes of marine waste.
- Improvement in cleanliness level from ‘C’ (poor) to ‘A++’ (good) through scientific measurement system.
- Annual savings of 1,100 ml of municipal water through recycling.
- 3-year database on routine testing of bathing water quality (physical, chemical and biological pollution) and health risk monitoring.
- 1,25,000 beach-goers are educated on responsible behavior on the beaches.
- The number of tourists for recreational activities increased by about 80 percent, which boosted economic growth.
- Alternative livelihood opportunities for 500 fisher families through pollution mitigation, protection and services.
- The Ministry under its ICZM initiative is committed to develop another 100 beaches in the next 5 years under the vision agenda of the Ministry.
GS PAPER III
How ejections from Sun’s corona influence space weather predictions crucial for monitoring satellites: Study
Why in News
- A recent study has shown how conditions and phenomena such as coronal mass ejections in the solar atmosphere affect the accuracy of space weather forecasts that are important to the health of our satellites. Be important for.
- Need of the study
- Space weather refers to conditions in the solar wind and near-Earth space that can adversely affect the performance of technological systems sent into space and installed on land.
- Near-Earth space weather is mainly caused by plasma substances (i.e. coronal mass ejections (CMEs) ejected from the Sun’s corona) that result from the continuous eruptions of giant magnetic plasma in the Sun’s own surroundings. The causes are being launched into space and due to which many parts of the earth can be affected.
- One such example of space weather phenomena is geomagnetic storms, which disturb the Earth’s magnetic field and whose effects can last from a few hours to a few days.
- It is therefore necessary to understand how events in the solar atmosphere affect space weather in order to monitor and maintain our satellites.
About the study
- This understanding will help in the interpretation of the data to be received from the upcoming Aditya-L1, India’s first solar mission.
- Indian Institute of Astrophysics (IIA), Bangalore, an autonomous institute of the Department of Science and Technology, Government of India, Dr. Astronomers, led by Vagish Mishra, have shown from their current work that the plasma properties of CMEs emitted from the Sun and the time they reach Earth can vary greatly with longitudinal locations in interplanetary space.
- The research is published in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomy Journal.
- In this research, the team of astronomers studied the material (coronal mass ejection-CME) and the interplanetary parts of the CME (ICME) emitted from the Earth-directed Sun’s corona.
- From the LASCO coronagraph at three locations in the Solar System – two of NASA’s STEREO spacecraft and the SOHO ship near the first Lagrangian point (L1) on the Sun-Earth line, he found a tri-view of the CME and ICME. Reconstructed dimensional 3D scene.
The basis of the current study
- The two events that form the basis of the present study are the ICMEs of 11 March and 06 August 2011 (when they reached Earth).
- Using these multi-point remote and in situ observations, this study investigated differences in dynamics, arrival times, plasma and magnetic field parameters of ICME structures at locations in the heliosphere where different satellites are located.
- The Sun emits a continuous stream of charged particles called the solar wind from its surface. These two selected events were ideal for studying the effects of the aftershocks of the CME moving through the solar wind.
- The plasma characteristics of CME-generated tremors and their arrival times in a pre-optimized heterogeneous medium may vary at different longitudinal locations in the heliosphere.
- This study highlights the difficulties in linking local observations of ICME to its global structures from in-situ spacecraft and suggests that it is challenging to accurately predict large-scale CME structures at any location in the heliosphere.
- It stressed that the lack of information about the pre-optimized ambient solar wind medium could severely limit the CME’s arrival time and the accuracy of space weather forecasts.
- This new understanding will help in the interpretation of data from space missions.
GS PAPER III
Microscopic Machines Useful in Biomedical Engineering: Study
Why in News
- The performance of small engines that contain single colloidal particles varies with changes in environmental noise. This is what researchers said in a study that evaluated the response of such micro-engines to fluctuations in noise in the surrounding medium.
- This insight will be essential for the future creation of microscopic machines that operate in complex biological environments and are becoming increasingly important in biomedical engineering.
- Micro-mechanical machines are at the forefront of modern science and technology and have applications ranging from aerospace to biomedical engineering.
- Recently scientists have experimentally built such machines from single colloidal particles. The mechanical work and power output in these systems are highly affected by fluctuations in the environment around them.
- Therefore understanding the role of environmental noise statistics on this type of energy conversion is important for understanding the operation of such microscopic machines. Just like the naturally occurring molecular motor that drives movement inside a living cell.
About the study
- This study has recently been published in the ‘Nature Communications’ journal.
- A team of researchers at the Jawaharlal Nehru Scientific Research Center (Jawahar Lal Nehru Center for Advanced Scientific Research-JNCASR), an autonomous institute of the Department of Science and Technology, Government of India, and the Indian Institute of Science (IISc), Bangalore developed a one micrometer size Created Stirling engines (heat engines that convert thermal energy into kinetic energy by heating and cooling a working gas sealed in cylinders) that confine a single colloidal particle with a laser trap (trap).
- Thermal (thermal) noise due to the odd/random motion of water molecules and non-thermal noise arising from sources other than temperature such as fluctuating laser beams, with colloidal particles holding liquids In testing the engine’s performance in the presence of reservoirs containing substances, the researchers found that the engine was responding to non-thermal noise.
- This study has recently been published in the journal ‘Nature Communications’.
- A team from Jawaharlal Nehru Center for Scientific Research (Jawahar Lal Nehru Center for Advanced Scientific Research-JNCASR) accomplished this task with the help of a new technique of reservoir engineering using laser traps to provide artificial noise to colloidal particles. Due to which such artificial noise of a large amount of variety was produced, which was not possible to feel before.
- The team also showed that the maximum power output method could be achieved at different cycle-speeds (the time it takes to complete one Stirling cycle) without affecting engine efficiency.
- Function, power and efficiency, i.e. the performance of this engine depends on the rate of dispersion of the laser and the relaxation rate of the vibration of the particle.
- This discount rate can be changed by modifying the environmental noise/fluctuation figures and thereby modifying the performance of this engine.
- Molecular motors that operate within living cells move out of equilibrium in only one direction in the presence of non-thermal noise, and this motion does not involve changes in heat or temperature.
- Therefore understanding the role of non-thermal noise in the conversion of non-equilibrium energy would be one such insight for building any artificial micro-machines that operate in complex biological environments.
GS PAPER III
Rhino Horn Reverification Program
- Why in News
- On the occasion of World Rhino Day 2021 in Assam on September 22, 2021, 2,479 rhino horns will be burnt in a unique cremation ceremony at Bokakhat area in Assam.
The Assam government had announced on September 16 that out of 2,623 rhino horns stocked in the state treasury, 2,479 rhino horns would be publicly burnt in six giant gas furnaces. The remaining 94 will be protected as collection properties for academic purposes and 50 will be reserved for various cases filed in courts.
What is the purpose of burning rhino horns?
- The Assam government will burn 2,467 horns out of 2,623 horns. The cremation of these rhino horns in Assam is being conducted publicly to establish a milestone towards rhinoceros conservation.
- The main objective of this program is to debunk various myths related to rhino horn as well as send a message of warning to poachers and smugglers.
- This Rhino Horns Burning Program will also send a powerful message to the people involved in the illegal trade of Rhino Horns and those who use these horns for medicinal purposes.
- These horns have been found from Barpeta, Morrigan, Mangaldoi, Nagaon, Tezpur, Golaghat, BTR and Kohora. These horns have been deposited in the Bokakhat Treasury/Repository. Before this cremation event, the horns to be preserved in the horn stock will be separated from the horns to be burned.
- All these horns have been collected from dead rhinoceros or have been recovered from poachers during the rhino horn reverification program in the National Parks of Assam.
Rhino Horn Reverification Program
- In August and September 2021, the state forest department conducted a ‘horn verification’ program in seven wildlife areas – Manas, Morigaon, Guwahati, Mangaldai, Tezpur, Bokakhat and Nagaon where they examined 2,623 rhino horns.
- On September 12, 2021, the verification of these horns was completed. Of these 2,623 rhino horns, 2,479 were marked for destruction, while 94 were preserved as collection assets for academic purposes and another 50 horns were reserved for various court cases. .
- The entire program of destruction of these rhino horns by the Government of Assam is in accordance with Section 39(3) (C) of the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972. This program is also in accordance with an order of a Gauhati High Court.
- The residual ashes of these rhino horns will be properly disposed of, with the aim of preventing smuggling for medical practices. A full-bodied rhinoceros statue will be made from the ashes of these burnt rhino horns.
- Rhino horns have not been publicly burnt before, however, following allegations by an RTI activist that some forest department employees are illegally trading these horns and replacing them with fake horns. A re-verification program was conducted in the year 2016.