GS PAPER I NEWS

International Yoga Day

Why in News

Coinciding with the summer solstice, June 21 is observed as International Yoga Day, recognising the many benefits of the ancient Indian practice of yoga.

Key Points

  • The year 2021 marks the 7th International Yoga Day.
  • The theme for 2021 International Yoga Day is ‘Yoga for Wellness’.
  • mYoga application:
  • The Prime Minister launched the “mYoga” application, developed by the Morarji Desai National Institute of Yoga, Ministry of Ayush in partnership with the World Health Organisation.
  • It will contain training and practice videos and audios based on Common Yoga Protocol which can be used by all—with the objective of promoting one world, one health.
  • This year, the International Yoga Day observed in more than one lakh villages through Arogya Foundation of India and Common Service Centres.
  • The Arogya Foundation had been training its volunteers in batches since May for International Yoga Day.
  • The International Yoga Day programme organised by Arogya Foundation through its Ekal Abhiyan reached more than 18 thousand villages in UP and to more than 8 thousand villages each in MP, Himanchal Pradesh and Jharkhand.
  • States like West Bengal, Odisha, Chhattisgarh, J&K, Bihar and Assam also witnessed this activity in more than 4,000 villages.
  • Globally, the International Day of Yoga is being observed in various countries, and several countries will have local events as the day progresses.
  • Various Indian missions across the world have been sharing and highlighting International Day of Yoga observances organised by them in the presence of eminent personalities. Some of the countries include Jamaica, Japan, Guatemala, Nepal, Cambodia, Vietnam.
  • The program was organised at 75 cultural heritage locations with the active participation of all institutions/bodies of the Ministry to commemorate 75 years of Independence.

Yoga

  • The word ‘yoga’ is derived from Sanskrit and means to join or to unite, symbolising the union of a person’s body and consciousness.
  • It is an ancient physical, mental and spiritual practice that originated in India.
  • In its ‘Common Yoga Protocol’ from 2019, the Ministry of Ayurveda, Yoga & Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy (AYUSH) lists Yama, Niyama, Asana, Pranayama, Pratyahara, Dharana, Dhyana, Samadhi, Bandhas and Mudras, Satkarmas, Yuktahara, Mantra-japa, Yukta-karma among popular yoga ‘sadhanas’.
  • Yoga is an invaluable gift from our ancient tradition which embodies unity of mind and body, thought and action.
  • It is a holistic approach that is valuable to health and well-being of human. Yoga is not just about exercise; it is a way to discover the sense of oneness with yourself, the world and the nature.

International Day of Yoga

  • The UN proclaimed June 21 as International Day of Yoga by passing a resolution on December 11, 2014, during the 69th session of the General Assembly.
  • As 21st June is the longest day of the year in the northern hemisphere and shortest in the southern hemisphere, having special significance in many parts of the world.
  • From the perspective of yoga, the summer solstice marks the transition to Dakshinayana. The second full moon after summer solstice is known as Guru Poornima.
  • Shiva was the first yogi (Adi Yogi), is said to have begun imparting the knowledge of yoga to the rest of mankind on this day, and became the first guru.

GS PAPER II

Cinematograph (Amendment) Bill 2021

Why in News

Recently, the Centre released the draft Cinematograph (Amendment) Bill 2021 to the general public for comments until July 2.

Key Points

  • The new draft proposes to amend the Cinematograph Act of 1952 with provisions that will give the Centre “revisionary powers” and enable it to “re-examine” films already cleared by the Central Board of Film Certification (CBFC).

Revision of Certification

  • The Ministry of Information and Broadcasting proposes the Act that will equip the Centre with revisionary powers on account of violation of Section 5B (1).
  • Section 5B (1) deals with the principles for guidance in certifying films.
  • The current Act, in Section 6, already equips the Centre to call for records of proceedings in relation of a film’s certification.
  • The Ministry explained that the proposed revision “means that the Central Government, if the situation so warranted, has the power to reverse the decision of the Board”.
  • It is also proposed in the Draft Bill to add a proviso to sub-section (1) of section 6 to the effect that on receipt of any references by the Central Government in respect of a film certified for public exhibition, on account of violation of Section 5B (1) of the Act.

Significance

  • The draft comes shortly after the abolition of the Film Certificate Appellate Tribunal, which was the last point of appeal for filmmakers against the certificate granted to their film.
  • The draft has been criticised by filmmakers such as Adoor Gopalakrishnan, who has termed it a “super censor”.

Age-based Certification

  • The draft proposes to introduce age-based categorisation and classification.
  • Currently, films are certified into three categories:
  • ‘U’ for unrestricted public exhibition;
  • ‘U/A’ that requires parental guidance for children under 12; and
  • ‘A’ for adult films.
  • The new draft proposes to divide the categories into further age-based groups: U/A 7+, U/A 13+ and U/A 16+. This proposed age classification for films echoes the new IT rules for streaming platforms.

Provision against piracy

  • At present, there are no enabling provisions to check film piracy in the Cinematograph Act, 1952.
  • The draft proposes to add Section 6AA that will prohibit unauthorised recording. The proposed section states, “notwithstanding any law for the time being in force, no person shall, without the written authorisation of the author, be permitted to use any audio-visual recording device in a place to knowingly make or transmit or attempt to make or transmit or abet the making or transmission of a copy of a film or a part thereof”.
  • Violation shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term “which shall not be less than three months but which may extend to three years and with a fine which shall not be less than Rs 3 lakh but which may extend to 5 per cent of the audited gross production cost or with both”?

Eternal Certificate

  • The draft proposes to certify films for perpetuity. Currently a certificate issued by the CBFC is valid only for 10 years.

GS PAPER II

Delimitation in Jammu and Kashmir

Why in News

The Union government’s invitation to 14 key political leaders from Jammu and Kashmir for a meeting with the Prime Minister in the national capital has led to speculation about possible scheduling of the Assembly elections.

Key Points

  • On Independence Day 2020, Prime Minister Narendra Modi of India had said elections would be held in J&K after the delimitation process in the Union Territory was over.
  • Delimitation is crucial for kick-starting the political process in J&K.

Delimitation

  • Delimitation is the act of redrawing boundaries of an Assembly or Lok Sabha seat to represent changes in population over time.
  • This exercise is carried out by a Delimitation Commission, whose orders have the force of law and cannot be questioned before any court.
  • The objective is to redraw boundaries in a way so that the population of all seats, as far as practicable, be the same throughout the State.
  • Aside from changing the limits of a constituency, the process may result in change in the number of seats in a state.

Delimitation exercises in J&K

  • Delimitation exercises in J&K in the past have been slightly different from those in the rest of the country because of the region’s special status — which was scrapped by the Centre in August 2019.
  • Until then, delimitation of Lok Sabha seats in J&K was governed by the Constitution of India, but the delimitation of the state’s Assembly seats was governed by the Jammu and Kashmir Constitution and Jammu and Kashmir Representation of the People Act, 1957.

GS PAPER III

World Hydrography Day

Why in News

World Hydrography Day is celebrated every year on June 21.

Key Points

  • Commander-in-Chief Andaman & Nicobar Command (CINCAN) participated in commemorating the Centenary of the World Hydrography Day on 21 Jun 2021.
  • The day is celebrated by the Hydrographic fraternity of the Indian Navy every year through a series of coordinated events at the respective Commands to spread awareness of hydrography and its contribution in ensuring safe navigation at sea as well as to showcase achievements and contributions of the Indian Naval Hydrographic Organisation.
  • The theme for the event this year is “100 years of International Cooperation in Hydrography”.
  • The CINCAN appreciated the yeoman service by the Indian Naval Hydrographic Organisation in capacity building initiatives among littorals in the Indian Ocean Region through hydrographic surveys and providing world class training to personnel from friendly foreign nations.
  • The surveys help in augmenting the Sagarmala project under the NITI AAYOG for sustainable development of A&N Islands.
  • Indian Navy hydrography ships Sutlej from Southern Naval Command and Nirupak from Eastern Naval Command are currently deployed for hydrographic survey in Andaman and Nicobar Islands since April 2021.

World Hydrographic Day

  • The ‘World Hydrographic Day’ is celebrated every year to acknowledge hydrography and its importance to human endeavours.
  • Hydrography refers to the measuring and characterization of the physical features of oceans, seas, coastal regions, lakes, and rivers.
  • Hydrography also forecasts the changes observed in water bodies with time and the analysis helps in ensuring navigation safety along with the implementation of maritime operations.

History of World Hydrographic Day

  • Hydrography started with the creation of charts meant to guide individual seafarers as they navigated through new and unexplored routes.
  • These charts were initially private property.
  • In 1921, the International Hydrographic Bureau was founded to aid government dialogue on safe navigation, performance standards, and maritime environmental preservation.
  • Later, in 1970, it was renamed to International Hydrographic Organization (IHO).
  • In 2005, the IHO proposed a World Hydrography Day, which was later approved by the United Nations General Assembly in response to Oceans and the Law of the Sea.

Significance of Day

  • The day intends to provide an international platform to the IHO – to laud its efforts and to encourage the governments of different nations to collaborate with it.
  • On this day, countries from all across the world join hands to acknowledge the importance of IHO and to create awareness about the need for safe navigation.

GS PAPER II

Consumer Protection (E-commerce) Rules, 2020

Why in News

To prevent the unfair trade practices in e-commerce, the Central Government had notified the Consumer Protection (E-Commerce) Rules, 2020 with effect from 23rd July 2020.

Key Points

  • A slew of amendments has been proposed under the ‘Consumer Protection (E Commerce) Rules’ 2020 to protect the interests of consumers and encourage free and fair competition in the market’, the consumer affairs ministry.
  • According to the proposed rules, e-commerce companies will not be allowed to organise a flash sale that allows sale of goods or services at significantly reduced prices and high discounts.
  • The consumer affairs ministry clarified that conventional ecommerce flash sales are not banned but specific flash sales or back-to-back sales which limit customer choice, increase prices and prevent a level playing field are not allowed.
  • The e-commerce policy will be implemented by making changes in the Foreign Direct Investment rules, consumer protections rules as well as Information Technology Act.

Highlights of the bill

  • E-tailors:
  • The guidelines also stated that e-tailers will now have to send a notification and suggest “alternatives” before products are purchased by consumers to give a fair opportunity to goods manufactured in India.
  • E-tailers cannot mislead consumers by manipulating search results on their platforms. They will have to ensure that marketplaces do not use any information collected through its platform for unfair advantage of its associated enterprises.
  • Besides, no marketplace e-commerce entity shall sell goods or services to any person who is registered as a seller on its platform.
  • E-tailers engaged in cross-selling of goods or services will have to disclose to its users, by providing the name of the entity providing data for cross-selling, as well as the data used for cross-selling on the platform.
  • Cross-selling is a marketing practice of selling complementary products to customers, thereby getting them to purchase more. Selling products to a consumer by “deliberate misrepresentation” of information about the goods is also not allowed.
  • Chief Compliance Officer:
  • Similar to the newly notified Information Technology (Intermediary Guidelines and Digital Media Ethics Code) Rules, 2021, under the IT Act, the Consumer Protection Rules are proposing a grievance officer, a chief compliance officer and a 24×7 nodal officer to be appointed by e-commerce firms.
  • By requiring e-commerce entities to register with the DPIIT and appoint a chief compliance officer, nodal officer and grievance officer who are citizens of (and resident in) India, the proposed rules seek to hold e-commerce entities in the country accountable.

Other highlights of Bill

  • No logistics service provider of a marketplace e-commerce entity shall provide differentiated treatment between sellers of the same category.
  • Provided that each logistics service provider of a marketplace e-commerce entity shall provide a disclaimer including terms and conditions governing its relationship with sellers on the marketplace e-commerce entity platform, a description of any differentiated treatment which it gives or might give between sellers of the same category,” the new rules propose.
  • The rapid growth of e-commerce platforms has also brought into the purview the unfair trade practices of the marketplace e-commerce entities engaging in manipulating search result to promote certain sellers, preferential treatment to some sellers, indirectly operating the sellers on their platform, impinging the free choice of consumers, selling goods close to expiration etc.