Daily Current Affairs for 22nd & 23 rd Oct 2021

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  5. Daily Current Affairs for 22nd & 23 rd Oct 2021


Mount Aso Volcano

Why in News

    • The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) has reported that a loud eruption was heard on 20 October 2021 at Mount Aso volcano, located in the Kyushu region of southwestern Japan. The administration has confirmed an eruption at the volcano.

Key point

    • According to the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), the eruption occurred early morning local time at the No. 1 Nakadake crater on Mount Aso.
    • This volcano is located in the southern island of Kyushu. The place where the volcano erupted is a famous tourist spot.
    • The Japan Meteorological Agency said the volcanic ash spread more than a kilometer from the crater and reached a height of about 3,500 metres.
    • The Japan Meteorological Agency has raised Mount Aso’s volcano alert level from a scale of 5 to 3. Along with this, people have been called to be on alert not to go to the mountain and to spread the ashes.

Mount aso

    • Mount Aso is the largest active volcano in Japan and one of the largest in the world.
    • It is located in the Aso Kujo National Park in Kumamoto Prefecture on the island of Kyushu.
    • Its peak is 1,592 meters above sea level. Mount Aso has erupted several times in the past and some people have also died.
    • In 2016, an eruption caused volcanic smoke up to 11 km above sea level.


    • Volcano is such a crack or mouth present on the surface of the earth, from which the hot lava, gas, ash etc. inside the earth come out.
    • It is a rupture in the upper layer of the earth through which the material inside comes out.
    • The conical landform formed by the accumulation of these substances ejected by the volcano is called a volcanic mountain.
    • Volcanoes are related to plate tectonics as it has been found that they often occur along plate boundaries because plate boundaries provide vulnerable sites for fractures in the Earth’s upper crust.
  • Apart from this, volcanoes are also found at some other sites whose origin is believed to be from the mantle plume and such sites are called hotspots.
    • In geomorphology, volcanism is seen as a sudden event and is classified as a constructive force among the forces that change the surface of the Earth because they form many landforms.
    • Environmental geography on the other hand studies them as a natural disaster because it causes damage to the ecosystem and life and property.


PM Gatishakti National Master Plan (NMP)

Why in News

    • The Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs (CCEA) has approved the PM Gatishakti National Master Plan, which includes setting up of institutional framework for its launch, implementation, monitoring and support mechanism to provide multi-modal connectivity.

Key point

    • Hon’ble Prime Minister launched PM Gatishakti NMP for multi-modal connectivity on October 13, 2021.
    • The implementation framework consists of Empowered Group of Secretaries (EGoS), Network Planning Group (NPG) and Technical Support Unit (TSU) equipped with requisite technical competencies.

About EGOS

    • The EGOS will be headed by the Cabinet Secretary and will have Secretaries of 18 Ministries as members and Head of Logistics Department as Member Convenor.
    • PM Gatishakti will review and monitor the implementation of NMP to ensure EGOS logistic efficiencies.
    • It is empowered to lay down the framework and criteria for any subsequent amendment to the NMP.
    • EGOS will also lay down the process and final framework for simultaneous execution of various activities and ensure that various infrastructure development initiatives are part of this joint integrated digital platform.
    • EGOS will also look after the works required by various Ministries like Steel, Coal, Fertilizers, etc. to meet the demand for efficient transportation of bulk goods.

Network Planning Group (NPG)

    • The CCEA has also approved the constitution, composition and jurisdiction of the Network Planning Group (NPG).
    • The NPG comprises the heads of the network planning units of the respective infrastructure ministries and will assist the EGOS.

Technical Support Unit (TSU)

    • Considering the complexities involved in the overall integration of networks, the efficiencies required to reduce the logistic cost through micro-plan detailing as well as enhancing the effectiveness of the plan to avoid duplication of tasks for the overall development of any sector. Technical Support Unit (TSU) has been approved to provide
    • TSU will have field experts from various infrastructure sectors like Aviation, Maritime, Public Transport, Rail, Road & Highways, Ports etc and Urban & Transport Planning, Structures (Roads, Bridges & Buildings), Power, Pipelines, GIS, ICT, Finance / Market PPP, Logistics, Data Analysis etc. Subject experts (SMEs) will be there.
    • PM Gatishakti NMP aims at breaking down departmental boundaries and more holistic and integrated planning of projects to solve the problems of multi modal connectivity and last mile connectivity and implement them.
    • This will help in reducing the logistic cost. This will bring more economic benefits to consumers, farmers, youth as well as people engaged in businesses.
    • With this approval, PM Gatishakti will be launched and accelerated resulting in a holistic and integrated planning framework for infrastructure development in the country.
    • With this Cabinet approval, PM Gatishakti will bring various stakeholders together and help in integrating various modes of transport.
    • PM Gatishakti for multi-modal connectivity will ensure overall good governance at the NMP Centre, with the people of India, India’s industry, India’s manufacturers and India’s farmers at the center.


Station Development Corporation

Why in News

    • The Indian Railway Board has issued an order to close the Indian Railway Station Development Corporation (IRSDC), formed for the redevelopment of stations across the country.

Key point

    • The Ministry of Railways is presently re-developing railway stations across the country. For this the Indian Railway Station Development Corporation was formed.
    • The same organization has floated tenders for handing over many big stations including Anand Vihar Terminal, Chandigarh, Gwalior, Habibganj to private hands.
    • This is the second organization under the Ministry of Railways, which has been ordered to be closed.
    • Earlier on September 7, 2021, the Indian Railways Alternative Fuel Organization (IROAF) was closed.


    • Has taken up the direction of implementation of the recommendation of the Ministry of Finance.
    • The Finance Ministry in a report had recommended that the government bodies be rationalized by closing them or merging several organizations under different ministries.
    • In the order issued by the Railway Board late on October 18, it has been said that the stations managed by IRSDC will be assigned to the respective zonal railways.
    • The Corporation will also hand over all the documents related to the projects to the Zonal Railways for further development.

Redevelopment of Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminal

    • The corporation was also involved in the bidding process for the redevelopment of Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminal in Mumbai, among other projects.
    • IRSDC has recently invited bids for setting up of ‘Rail Arcade’ at Chandigarh and KSR Bengaluru Railway Stations.
    • It also announced facility management plans for 90 railway stations across South India.
  • Background of Indian Railway Station Development Corporation
    • The Railway Board had constituted the Indian Railway Station Development Corporation (IRSDC) for the redevelopment of stations across the country.
    • It was formed on 12 April 2012. It was started as a Joint Venture Company.
    • Railway Land Development Authority, RITES and IRCON International Limited had stake in it.
    • Where RLDA had 50 percent stake, RITES had 24 percent while Indian Railway Construction Limited (IRCON) had 26 percent.


FATF Gray List

Why in News

    • Pakistan has not been able to come out of the Financial Task Force (FATF) gray list for the third consecutive year.

Key point

    • Despite all the efforts of Pakistan, it is not able to get out of the gray list of FATF.
    • In this case once again he has got a setback from the global body.
    • FATF has retained Pakistan in its gray list. Not only this, this time its friend Turkey has also got a setback.
    • FATF included Turkey in ‘grey list’ for deficiencies in combating money laundering and terrorism financing.
    • Besides Turkey, Jordan and Mali have also been added to the gray list, while Botswana and Mauritius have been dropped from the list.
    • This action against Pakistan and Turkey has given great success to India, which is battling terrorist attacks.
    • Pakistan was placed on the watch list by FATF in June 2018.
    • An action plan was submitted to complete it by October 2019.
    • But for failing to fulfill it, it remains on the watch list of FATF. Turkey is accused of promoting money laundering and financing terrorists.
    • Pakistan was also not relieved in the review held in October 2018, 2019, 2020 and April 2021.
    • Pakistan has failed to act on the recommendations of the FATF.
    • During this period, terrorist organizations in Pakistan have received financial help from abroad and domestically.
  • accuse Turkey
    • FATF has also placed Turkey, which supported Pakistan on the Kashmir issue, in the gray list.
    • Turkey is accused of negligence in monitoring and acting on terror financing. He was being monitored since the year 2019.

Gray list

    • In the gray list, countries are placed which are suspected of being involved in or neglecting terror financing and money laundering.
    • These countries are given conditional grace to take action. This is monitored.
    • Overall you can call it ‘Warning with Monitoring’.
    • The Financial Action Task Force (FATF) is an inter-governmental body that was established in 1989 by the G7 group countries in Paris, the capital of France.
    • Its task is to monitor international money laundering, the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and the financing of terrorism.
    • In addition, the FATF promotes the effective implementation of legal, regulatory and operational measures on the subject of finance.


Global Minimum Corporate Tax Agreement

Why in News

    • Recently 136 countries have entered into an agreement to redistribute tax rights and impose a global minimum corporate tax on large multinational corporations.

Key point

    • With this new agreement signed at a meeting of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, all these countries seek to end tax competition that has forced global corporate tax rates to be kept low for years.
    • Large multinational corporations are traditionally taxed based on where they declare their profits, not where they actually do business.
    • This has allowed many large companies to avoid paying higher taxes in countries where they do most of their business by moving their profits to lower-tax jurisdictions such as, for example, a US company such as Apple, in Ireland, where tax rates are low, may avoid paying higher taxes in the United States, by declaring their profits to belong to a subsidiary company.
    • Due to the practice of large companies shifting their profits in this way, the tax revenues of various governments around the world are greatly affected.


    • The average global corporate tax rate was over 40% in the early 1980s and fell below 25% in 2020 as governments of various countries increased their tax rates to attract large businesses. competed against each other country.
    • This “race to the bottom” has forced the losing governments to wake up.
    • Many believe that the most immediate trigger for the current tax settlement may be the COVID-19 pandemic, which has severely affected the tax revenues of most economies and governments around the world.
    • US President Joe Biden is also trying to collect at least $ 03 trillion for his social welfare programs.
    • US court dismissed the petition of Nirav Modi and his associates
    • Key facts included in this new global minimum corporate tax agreement
    • This new global tax agreement consists of two pillars, the second of which is the most important. It could cap the corporate tax rate at 15% worldwide by allowing governments of different countries to levy a “top-up” tax on domestic companies that pay less than 15% tax on profits declared abroad.
    • Therefore, if a US company pays only 5% tax on profits declared as its subsidiary in Ireland, the US government will now be able to impose an additional 10% tax on these profits.
    • This is expected to add about $150 billion in additional annual revenue to the government’s budget.

The Profit

    • Supporters of this global minimum corporate tax agreement believe it will help prevent a “downward race” as countries around the world compete against each other to cut their taxes to attract businesses. We do.
    • They believe that this will increase tax revenue and help governments invest in social development. However, many other people and organizations have not been affected by this tax agreement at all.
    • Oxfam International, a non-profit organization, has criticized the agreement, arguing that the minimum corporate tax rate of 15% is actually too low.


High-Speed ​​Expandable Aerial Target Practice

  • Why in News
    • High-Speed ​​Expandable Aerial Target (HEAT) was successfully flight tested by Defense Research and Development Organization (DRDO) from Integrated Test Range (ITR), Chandipur off the coast of Bay of Bengal in Odisha.

About HEAT

    • This vehicle can be used as an aerial target for evaluation of various missile systems.
    • The performance of the targeted aircraft was monitored through various tracking sensors including telemetry and radar and Electro Optical Tracking System (EOTS).
    • The current flight testing is done under developmental flight trials.
    • Expression of Interest for production of vehicle for Indian industries has already been issued.
    • This indigenous target aircraft, once developed, will meet the High-Speed ​​Expandable Aerial Target (HEAT) requirements for the Indian Armed Forces.
    • Designed and developed by DRDO’s Aeronautical Development Establishment (ADE), Bangalore.
    • The air vehicle is launched using twin under-slung boosters that provide initial acceleration to the vehicle.
    • It is powered by gas turbine engine which maintains long endurance flight at subsonic speed.
    • The target aircraft is equipped with MEMS based Inertial Navigation System (INS) for navigation along with Flight Control Computer (FCC) for guidance and control.
    • The vehicle is programmed for fully autonomous flight.
    • Air vehicle check-out is done using laptop based Ground Control Station (GCS).


Konkan Shakti 2021

  • Why in News
    • The first joint exercise of the three armies of India and UK, Ex Konkan Shakti, is going to be held on October 21-27, 2021.

Key point

    • The sea-related part of this exercise, which is going to be held on the west coast of India, will be conducted in two phases.
    • The port phase is planned to be completed in Mumbai from October 21-23, 2021, while the sea phase will have exercises from October 24-27, 2021.
    • Naval relations between India and the United Kingdom date back to ancient times and over time, these differences have widened significantly in terms of handling and coordination.
    • Over the decades, the navies of the two countries have conducted bilateral exercises, exchanges and enhanced their technical cooperation. In reality, on the basis of this, for the first time, the exercise of three armies is going to be ‘Konkan Shakti-21’.
    • The Royal Navy (RN) is represented by F35 fighter aircraft and helicopters with its aircraft carrier HMS Queen Elizabeth, the Type 45 Daring class air defense destroyer HMS Defender, the Type 23 frigate HMS Richmond, a Royal Fleet Auxiliary (RFA) Fort Victoria and a The Royal Netherlands Navy frigate will be carried by HNLMS Evertsson.
    • The Indian Navy (IN) will be represented by its three indigenously developed stealth guided missile destroyers INS Kolkata, INS Kochi and INS Chennai, two stealth frigates INS Talwar and INS Teg and the tanker INS Aditya.
    • Integral Sea King 42B, Kamov-31 and Chetak helicopters, MiG 29K fighter aircraft, Dornier and P8I (Maritime Patrol Aircraft) and a submarine will also participate on the IN side.
    • Aircraft of the Indian Air Force will also participate in the exercise, including Jaguar, Su-30MKI fighter aircraft, AWACS, AEW&C and in-flight refueling aircraft.
    • The exercise at sea will showcase modern warfare strategies, anti-submarine warfare exercises, over-the-horizon targeted exercises, air defense exercises, cross deck landings and other complex maneuvers at sea.
    • The joint phase of the exercise will also include air policy operations with the participation of F35B, MIG29K and Indian Air Force components.
    • For smooth conduct of the exercise, the port phase will see active dialogue between the planners of both the navies, exchange of information by subject matter experts and interaction between the personnel participating in the exercise.
    • Earlier the Indian Air Force participated in an operational dialogue with the UK CSG on 19 and 21 October 2021. The exercise focuses on diverse areas including aspects of interoperability and sharing of best practices.

Ground phase

    • The ground phase of the ongoing exercise between the Indian Army and the UK Army will be held at Chaubatia from October 21-27, 2021 under the aegis of the Golden Key Division of Surya Command.
    • The UK Army is represented by officers and men from the 1st Battalion of the Fusilier Regiment and India will be represented by personnel from the 1/11 Gorkha Rifles.
    • The aim of the joint company level exercise between the two countries is to train soldiers in humanitarian assistance and disaster relief operations by the allied forces in difficult situations.


    • The objective of the three armies exercise Konkan Shakti is to promote mutual benefits from each other’s experiences and also to demonstrate the continued cooperation between the two countries.
    • Maritime cooperation is a distinctive symbol of the commitment of both countries to ensure a positive climate at sea to enhance strategic stability and promote global economic prosperity.
    • The interoperability achieved over the years from such exercises has proved to be beneficial to the operations of the Armed Forces of both the countries.


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