GS PAPER II NEWS
Marine Protected Area (MPA)
Why in News
- India expressed its support for the protection of the Antarctic environment and the co-sponsor of the European Union’s proposal to bring East Antarctica and the Weddell Sea under Marine Protected Areas (MPA) at the Ministerial Summit.
- India stated that “India supports ongoing measures to protect the Antarctic environment. Both the proposed MPAs are necessary to regulate stealthy and illegal fishing activities.”
- India urged the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) member states to ensure that India remains engaged in the formulation of these MPA rules, modalities and implementation mechanisms in future.
- The Ministerial Summit was hosted by the EU’s Commissioner for Environment, Oceans and Fisheries, Virginissinkevisius. The meeting was attended by ministers, ambassadors and commissioners of about 18 countries. The objective of the meeting was to increase the number of co-sponsors of MPA proposals and to reflect on a joint strategy and future actions for their rapid adoption by CCAMLR.
- The proposal to bring East Antarctica and the Weddell Sea under the MPA was first placed before the CCAMLR in 2020, but a consensus could not be reached at that time.
- Since then substantial progress has been made, with Australia, Norway, Uruguay and the UK agreeing to co-sponsor the proposal.
- India will join these countries in co-sponsoring the proposals of the MPA by the end of October 2021.
- Informed the representatives of the European Union that India started the Antarctic Expedition through the Southern Indian Ocean region in 1981 and since then India has not backed down in this regard.
- Since then, India has completed 40 missions out of 41 campaigns planned by 2021-22. India has strengthened its interests in maintaining its Antarctic approach.
- This is the first time that India is considering co-sponsoring an MPA proposal in the CCAMLR and tying up with countries such as Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Korea, New Zealand, South Africa and the United States of America, which will support the MPA proposals. are actively supporting.
- India’s decision to consider supporting and co-sponsoring the MPA resolutions is motivated by the principles of conservation and sustainable use and adherence to global cooperation frameworks (such as the Sustainable Development Goals, United Nations Decade of the Oceans, Convention on Biodiversity, etc.) of which India is also a signatory.
Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR)
- The CCAMLR is an international treaty on the management of Antarctic fisheries to maintain the species diversity and sustainability of the entire Antarctic marine ecosystem.
- CCAMLR came into force in April 1982. India has been a permanent member of the CCAMLR since 1986. The work related to CCAMLR is coordinated by the Ministry of Earth Sciences in India through its affiliated office- Center for Marine Living Resources and Ecology (CMLRE) Kochi, Kerala.
Marine Protected Area (MPA)
- The MPA ensures the marine protection of a particular area, through which natural resources or some part of the resources is protected to protect them.
- Some activities within the scope of the MPA area are limited or restricted to meet specific conservation, habitat protection, ecosystem monitoring, or fisheries management purposes.
- Since 2009, CCAMLR members have prepared various proposals for MPAs for different regions of the Southern Ocean.
- These proposals are scrutinized by the Scientific Committee of CCAMLR.
- After CCAMLR members agree on these proposals, detailed conservation measures are determined by the CCAMLR.
GS PAPER II
Swachh Bharat Mission-Urban 2.0 and AMRUT 2.0
Why in News
- Prime Minister launched the Swachh Bharat Mission-Urban 2.0 and AMRUT 2.0.
Swachh Bharat Mission-Urban 2.0
- Swachh Bharat Mission-Urban 2.0 to make all cities ‘waste free’ and ensure management of gray and black water in all cities other than those covered under AMRUT, ODF+ to all urban local bodies and less than 1 lakh Envisages to prepare the population as ODF++.
- So that the goals of safe sanitation in urban areas can be met.
- Source segregation of solid waste under the Urban 2.0 mission, using the principles of 3-R, Reduce, Reuse, Recycle, scientific processing of all types of urban solid waste and effective solid waste management. The focus will be on improvement of dumpsites for waste management.
- The outlay of SBM-U 2.0 is approximately Rs 1.41 lakh crore.
About Amrit 2.0
- AMRUT 2.0 aims at 100% supply of drinking water to all households in about 4,700 urban local bodies, with about 2.68 crore tap connections and 100% coverage of sewerage and septage in 500 AMRUT cities by providing about 2.64 crore sewer/septage connections. percent coverage, which will benefit more than 10.5 crore people in urban areas.
- AMRUT 2.0 will adopt the principles of circular economy and promote conservation and rejuvenation of surface and ground water bodies.
- The mission will promote data based governance in water management and technology sub-mission to leverage the latest global technologies and skills.
- To promote progressive competition among cities, ‘Drinking Water Survey’ will be conducted. The outlay of AMRUT 2.0 is around Rs 2.87 lakh crore.
Effect of SBM-U and AMRUT
- SBM-U and AMRUT have made significant contribution in improving the urban landscape during the last seven years.
- Both these major missions have increased the capacity to provide basic services of water supply and sanitation to the citizens.
- Cleanliness has become a mass movement today. All urban local bodies have been declared Open Defecation Free (ODF) and 70 per cent solid waste is now being processed scientifically.
- AMRUT is involved in ensuring water security by connecting 1.1 crore domestic tap connections and 85 lakh sewer connections, which will benefit more than 4 crore people.
GS PAPER II
Why in News
- Prime Minister inaugurated CIPET (CIPET): Institute of Petrochemical Technology, Jaipur through video conference.
- He also laid the foundation stone of four new medical colleges in Banswara, Sirohi, Hanumangarh and Dausa districts of Rajasthan.
- After 2014, the Central Government has sanctioned 23 medical colleges for Rajasthan and out of these, 7 medical colleges have already started.
- The Prime Minister said that in this nectar of independence, high level of skill will not only increase the strength of India but will also play a big role in fulfilling the resolve of self-reliant India.
- Skilled manpower, one of the fastest growing industries, is the need of the day for the petrochemical industry. He said that the new Institute of Petrochemical Technology would connect lakhs of youth with new possibilities.
- The Rajasthan Refinery project in Barmer is progressing rapidly with an investment of over Rs 70,000 crore.
- Talking about city gas distribution in the state, the Prime Minister said that till 2014, city gas distribution was allowed in only one city in the state, now 17 districts of the state have been approved for city gas distribution network.
- In the coming years, every district of the state will have a network of piped gas. He also pointed to the ease of life that started with the advent of facilities like toilets, electricity, gas connections.
- He said that today more than 21 lakh families are getting piped water through Jal Jeevan Mission in the state. The Prime Minister said that “development of Rajasthan accelerates the development of India” and more than 13 lakh pucca houses have been built for poor families in the state.
About health network
- The Prime Minister said that the biggest pandemic of the last 100 years has taught a lesson to the health sector of the world. Each country is trying to deal with this crisis in its own way. India has resolved to increase its strength and self-reliance in this disaster.
- The Prime Minister said that it is important that whether it is a medical college or a super specialty hospital, it is very important to spread their network rapidly to every nook and corner of the country.
- The Prime Minister said that in the last 6-7 years, more than 170 new medical colleges have been set up and work on more than 100 new medical colleges is going on at a brisk pace.
- In the year 2014, the total seats of medical undergraduate and post graduate in the country were close to 82 thousand. Today their number is increasing to 1 lakh 40 thousand seats.
- The Prime Minister said that even in the field of regulation and governance, with the advent of the National Medical Commission, the problems and questions of the past have been resolved.
- The Prime Minister said that skilled manpower related to healthcare has a direct impact on effective health services.
- The country has felt it more in this corona period.
- The success of the Central Government’s Vaccine-Free Vaccine Campaign is a reflection of this. Today, more than 88 crore doses of corona vaccine have been administered in India.
GS PAPER III
India Export Initiative and IndiaExport 2021 Portal
Why in News
- The Union Ministry of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises has virtual inaugurated the India Export Initiative and IndiaExports 2021 Portal of India SME Forum in New Delhi.
- Confident to boost export growth with the help of MSMEs and achieve the target of USD 400 billion in the current financial year and the challenging target of USD 1 trillion in exports by 2027.
- To increase exports and ensure localization, it is necessary to improve India’s manufacturing base to make the country a global manufacturing superpower.
- This goal can be achieved by increasing India’s competitive advantage or enhancing the competitiveness of MSMEs and making India a preferred manufacturing destination for the world.
- MSMEs will play an important role in establishing trade balance and reducing dependence on imports and this can be done by enhancing their manufacturing capabilities.
- With more than 63 million MSMEs spread across India’s geographical expanse, Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) contribute about 40 percent of India’s total exports, which account for about 6.11 percent of the country’s manufacturing GDP and services sector. Contributes 24.63 percent of GDP.
- IndiaExports aims to promote MSMEs free of cost, with key objectives to focus on untapped export potential in existing tariff lines and support MSMEs by increasing its export numbers and increasing MSME exports to 50 per cent in the year 2022. And contribute in fulfilling the dream of Prime Minister Narendra Modi of 5 trillion economies.
- The initiative has an Info Portal that acts as a knowledge base for exports by Indian MSMEs, including potential markets as well as exports, procedures and other necessary information on all 456 tariff lines. Necessary information regarding export capacity is available for Rs.
- It will also provide a trainer-led platform to MSMEs through a series of sessions for specific sectors highlighting opportunities in specific products in international markets, apart from an export help desk.
- The initiative aims to benefit over 1 lakh micro, small and medium enterprises (SMEs) who are keen to know more about exports, and encourages over 30,000 micro, small and medium enterprises to start exporting. Doubling the number of active exporters.
GS PAPER II
Project ‘Senior Care Aging Growth Engine’ (SAGE)
- Why in News
- The SAGE Project for Senior Citizens has been prepared based on the recommendations of the Empowered Expert Committee (EEC) report on Startups.
- Seniors in India’s population. There has been a rapid growth of citizens and the emphasis is on creating an ecosystem that can better meet their needs.
- There are currently 110 million senior citizens in the country who are above 60 years of age.
- According to the latest industry reports, the share of senior citizens in the total population of the country is expected to increase from around 7.5 per cent in 2001 to around 12.5 per cent by 2026 and to 19.5 per cent by 2050.
- The Government of India had created the Senior Citizens Welfare Fund in 2016. Which is bringing a significant change in the lives of senior citizens in India? The fund is expected to utilize unclaimed deposits of Rs 9,000 crore lying in EPF and other public funds. Through this, the Rashtriya Vayoshri Yojana is funded.
- To utilize this fund, the government has formed expert groups comprising 7 eminent people from the areas of livelihood, employment, health, nutrition, silver economy, capacity building and research.
- The Expert Group on Silver Economy has recommended a scheme to encourage private enterprises to develop products for the benefit of senior citizens and promote innovation. Based on their recommendations, the Senior Aging Growth Engine (SAGE) has been designed.
Objective of the plan
- Focus on meeting the needs of the rapidly growing population of senior citizens in India and provide “one-stop access” to their care products and services.
- To encourage the selected “Startups” to create innovative products and services.
- Needs ranging from health, housing, care centres, finance, food and capital management to legal guidance can be provided through technology.
- A dedicated portal has been created to provide a transparent system for the selection of start-ups. Where all proposals will be uploaded and selection will be based on the review of an independent screening committee of experts.
- The first set of selected startups will be hosted on the portal in about two months’ time.
- The portal has been developed in record time by Mr. Chandrashekhar Buddha, CEO, Ministry of Education, NEAT and Dr. K. Elangovan, Assistant Innovation Director, MHRD.
- The Inter-Ministerial Committee has decided to provide equity support of about Rs 100 crore for SCWF.
- Each selected start-up will be given equity support @ maximum of Rs.1 crore.
- Rs 20 crore has been made available for the current year. Capital support will be given to 100 such innovative start-ups under this project over the next five years.
- The objective of the SAGE project is to identify, evaluate, verify, collect and deliver products, solutions, services.
- It should have products and services that can be provided directly to the stakeholders and provide a wide choice of products, solutions and services to choose from.
- At the same time it will be tailored to their needs and support and will help in improving the quality of life.
- The Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment will act as a facilitator in the entire process so that senior citizens can access trusted products through these identified start-ups.
- The EEC report emphasizes that business opportunities in this sector can be created in social enterprises, non-profits, informal networks, technology start-ups (fintech, edtech, foodtech, healthtech, wealthtech), legal and financial sectors.
- Similarly, apart from services (planning solutions, insurance, medico-legal) and infrastructure and managed care systems (homes, living facilities, care centres) for the elderly, SAGE is also used for research and data-based organizations and incubators of social enterprises. Hope to be a part.
- The Empowered Committee has recommended that at the time of selection, such young startups (less than 3 years of age) that present innovative ideas presented by social incubators and independent startups working for senior citizens for 3 years preferred, they should be encouraged.