GS PAPER I NEWS

World Heritage Day 2021

Why in News

Recently the Union Ministery of State for Tourism and Culture organized a webinar on ‘India’s Heritage: Powering Tourism‘ on the occasion of World Heritage Day.

Key Points

  • The theme of the World Heritage Day 2021 is “Complex Pasts: Diverse Futures”.
  • The Webinar on “India’s Heritage Powering Tourism” was organized to explore the magnificent heritage of India and its importance in enhancing tourism.
  • On this occasion the ministry also inaugurated the Online Exhibition on Ramayana, the Epic which was written by Maharishi Valmiki.
  • This Online Exhibition on Ramayana is the very first online exhibition.
  • In this Exhibition, they showcase 49 miniature paintings collections of National Museum, New Delhi.
  • These miniatures are from the 17th to the 19th century from different art schools of India.

World Heritage Day

  • The World Heritage Day, also known as International Day for Monuments and Sites celebrated every year in 18th April.
  • The World Heritage Day is celebrated every year to dedicate conservation and promotion of cultural heritage through various activities.
  • The activities are undertaken by the International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS).
  • In 1982, ICOMOS and United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) decided to celebrate 18th April as the International Day for Monuments and Sites.
  • The decision to celebrate International Day for Monuments and Sites was approved on 22nd General Conference in 1983 by UNESCO.

Significance of World Heritage Day

  • The World Heritage Day is observed to raise awareness about the cultural heritage around the World.
  • It also promotes the conservation of historical monuments and sites of the cultural integrity of a community.

International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS)

  • The International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS) is an association to conserve and protect the cultural heritage places around the world.
  • It was founded in 1965 by the Venice Charter of 1964 in Warsaw and recommends UNESCO on World Heritage Sites.
  • Its Headquarter located at the Paris, France.
  • The organization is headed by a president, five vice-presidents, a secretary-general and a treasurer all directly elected by the general assembly of the organization.

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)

  • The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN)
  • The UNESCO was established on 16 November 1945 which aimed to at promoting world peace and security through international cooperation in education, the science.
  • It has 193 member states and 11 associate members.
  • It Headquartered at the World Heritage Centre in Paris, France.
  • It has 53 regional field offices and 199 national commissions that facilitate its global mandate.

GS PAPER II

Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)

Why in News

The state government of Myanmar is demanding to the leaders of Southeast Asian to give them a place at ASEAN during crisis talks which is going to be held on 24th April at Jakarta.

Military Coup in Myanmar

  • This is the 3rd time since independence in 1948 Myanmar military has grabbed power in a coup.
  • The journey of Military Coup began when the Democratic Party of Myanmar secured majority in the Parliamentary Election on November 2020.
  • According to the 2008 military-drafted constitution, Parliament of Myanmar holds 25% of the total military seats.
  • After newly elected party the military imposed emergency for one year in state citing massive voting fraud in the parliamentary elections.
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  • The Election Commission of Myanmar denied supporting this claim.

International Reactions

  • The USA threatened Myanmar to re-impose sanctions following a coup by the country’s military leaders and called for a concerted international response to press them to relinquish power.
  • India supports the Democratic transition in Myanmar.

ASEAN

  • ASEAN is the acronym of Association of Southeast Asian Nations.
  • It is an economic union of 10 member states in Southeast Asia.
  • Its objective is to promote intergovernmental cooperation and facilitates economic, political, security, military, educational, and socio-cultural integration among its members and Asian countries.
  • It was established on 8th August 1967 in Bangkok, Thailand, with the signing of the ASEAN Declaration (Bangkok Declaration).
  • Its Founding Fathers are: Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand.
  • On 7 January 1984, Brunei Darussalam joined then Viet Nam on 28 July 1995, Lao PDR and Myanmar on 23 July 1997, and Cambodia on 30 April 1999.
  • The ten members of ASEAN are: Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Brunei, Vietnam, Laos, Myanmar and Cambodia.
  • The first-ever ASEAN summit was held in Bali February 1976.
  • The ASEAN 2021 is going to be happening at Brunei Darussalam.

Objectives

  • To accelerate economic growth, social progress and cultural development for a prosperous and peaceful community of Southeast Asian Nations.
  • To promote regional peace and stability through abiding respect for justice and the rule of law and adherence to the principles of the United Nations Charter.
  • To promote active collaboration and mutual assistance on matters of common interest in the economic, social, cultural, technical, scientific and administrative fields.
  • To collaborate more effectively for the greater utilization of agriculture and industries, the expansion of their trade, the improvement of transportation and communications facilities and the raising of the living standards of peoples.
  • To promote Southeast Asian studies.
  • To maintain close and beneficial cooperation with existing international and regional organisations.

ASEAN and Myanmar

  • Recently on the Myanmar issue ASEAN send a humanitarian aid mission to Myanmar as a potential first step in a long-term plan to broker a dialogue between the junta and its opponents.
  • It is the statement of the Voice of America’s Burmese service that if ASEAN wants to help Myanmar, then they need to consult and negotiate with the Myanmar.
  • So, Myanmar is demanding to participate in the ASEAN Summit which is going to be held on 24th April.

Way Forward

  • No change is irreversible, particularly in the context of military leadership scripted the meaning of democracy, and domestic forces and geopolitics continuously fail to deter its actions and impulses to rule.

GS PAPER III

India’s first sticky discs Bats

Why in News

Recently India’s first bamboo-dwelling bat with sticky disks has been discovered at Meghalaya by the Zoological Survey of India (ZSI).

Key Points

  • Eudiscopus-3.jpg It has 130 species count of the flying mammal in the country.
  • The disk-footed bat (Eudiscopus denticulus) was found near the Nongkhyllem Wildlife Sanctuary, about 1,000 km west of its nearest known habitat in Myanmar.
  • The newly-discovered bat was presumed to be a bamboo-dwelling species, but its flattened skull and adhesive pads helped in identifying it as the disk-footed species that found in southern China, Vietnam, Thailand and Myanmar.
  • Their flattened skull and sticky pads enabled the bats to roost inside cramped spaces, clinging to smooth surfaces such as bamboo internodes.
  • It is genetically very different from all other known bats bearing disk-like pads.
  • According to the Scientists of Zoological Survey of India (ZSI), very high frequency echolocation calls of the disk-footed bat enabled them for orientation in a cluttered environment such as inside bamboo groves.

Nongkhyllem Wildlife Sanctuary

  • The Nongkhyllem Wildlife Sanctuary (NWS) is located near Lailad village in the Ri Bhoi district of Meghalaya.
  • It covers an area of 29 square kilometers.
  • It is the home of various animals like Bengal tiger, the black bear, and the leopard.
  • It is the homeland of many species at the verge of extinction such as the necked hornbill and the brown hornbill bird.

Zoological Survey of India (ZSI)

  • The Zoological Survey of India (ZSI) was founded on 1 July 1916 by the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change.
  • It is an Indian organization in zoological research and studies to promote the survey, exploration and research of the fauna in the country.
  • It Objectives are of two types:
  • Primary Objectives:
  • Exploration, Survey, Inventorying and Monitoring of faunal diversity in various States, Ecosystems and Protected areas of India.
  • Taxonomic studies of all faunal components collected.
  • Periodic review of the Status of Threatened and Endemic species.
  • Preparation of Red Data Book, Fauna of India and Fauna of States.
  • Bio-ecological studies on selected important communities/species.
  • Preparation of databases for the recorded species of the country.
  • Maintenance & Development of National Zoological Collections.
  • Training, Capacity Building and Human Resource Development.
  • Faunal Identification, Advisory services and Library Services.
  • Publication of results including Fauna of India and Fauna of States.
  • Secondary Objectives:
  • Environmental Impact Studies.
  • Maintenance and Development of Museum at Headquarters and Regional Stations.
  • Development of ENVIS and CITES Centers.
  • Research Fellowship, Associate and Emeritus Scientist Programmes.
  • Collaborative research programmes on Biodiversity with other Organizations.
  • GIS and Remote Sensing studies for animal diversity as well as for selected threatened • species.
  • Chromosomal Mapping and DNA finger printing.
  • Its Headquarter situated at Kolkata.