Daily Current Affairs for 18th August 2022

  1. Home
  2. »
  3. Current Affairs August 2022
  4. »
  5. Daily Current Affairs for 18th August 2022

TKDL(Traditional Knowledge Digital Library)

GS paper 1 & 3: Traditional Medical knowledge, Applications of scientific developments in everyday life
Important for
Prelims exam: TKDL
Mains exam: Traditional medical knowledge of india

Why in news

Cabinet approves widening access of the Traditional Knowledge Digital Library (TKDL) database to users, besides patent offices.

About TKDL

• Traditional Knowledge Digital Library (TKDL) is a pioneering initiative of the Government of India to protect Indian traditional medicinal knowledge and prevent its misappropriation at International Patent Offices.
o It was jointly established by the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) and Department of Indian Systems of Medicine and Homeopathy in 2001.
• TKDL acts as a bridge between Ancient books (prior art) and International patent examiners.
Need of TKDL
• The healthcare needs of more than 70% of the population and livelihood of millions of people in India is dependent on traditional medicine.
• Traditional Knowledge (TK) is a valuable yet vulnerable asset to indigenous and local communities who depend on Traditional Knowledge for their livelihood.
• Instance like grant of a US patent to wound healing properties of turmeric flags the danger of complacence in proactively guarding the traditional knowledge.
o The time, effort and money spent on revocation of turmeric patent at USPTO highlighted the need for putting in place a proactive mechanism for Traditional Knowledge protection
• The problem with Indian TK is further compounded by the fact that India’s traditional medicinal knowledge exists in languages such as Sanskrit, Hindi, Arabic, Urdu, Tamil etc. that too in ancient local dialects that are no longer in practice.
o This makes Indian TK literature neither accessible nor understood by patent examiners at international patent offices.
o Traditional Knowledge Digital Library has overcome the language and format barrier by systematically and scientifically converting and structuring the available contents of the ancient texts on Indian Systems of Medicines(Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani, Sowa Rigpa and Yoga) into five international languages, namely, English, Japanese, French, German and Spanish.
Features of TKDL
• TKRC(Traditional Knowledge Resource Classification- an innovative classification system) has structured and classified the Indian Traditional Medicine System into several thousand subgroups.
• TKDL has set international specifications and standards for setting up Traditional Knowledge databases based on TKDL specifications.
• TKDL technology integrates diverse disciplines and languages such as Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha, Yoga, Sanskrit, Arabic, Urdu, Persian, Tamil, English, Japanese, Spanish, French, German, modern science & modern medicine.
• TKDL Access Agreement is unique in nature and has in-built safeguards on Non-disclosure to protect India’s interest against any possible misuse.
Vision behind widening of access of TKDL
• This move will drive research & development, and innovation based on India’s valued heritage across diverse fields.
• The opening up of the TKDL is also envisaged to inculcate thought and knowledge leadership through Bharatiya Gnana Parampara, under the New Education Policy 2020.
• It will propel manufacturers and innovators to gainfully build enterprises based on Indian valuable knowledge heritage.
• The TKDL can cater to a vast user base that would include businesses, companies, research institutions, educational institutions and governments.
• It will push creative minds to innovate for better and more effective solutions for a healthier and technology endowed population.

International Transport Forum(ITF)

GS paper 2: Regional and global groupings, Agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests
Important for
Prelims exam: ITF
Why in news
The Union Cabinet has approved the signing of a Contract between OECD, France on behalf of the ITF and the Technology Information, Forecasting and Assessment Council (TIFAC), India to support ITF’s activities in the Indian Transport Sector.
Activities to be carried out under this Contract will provide:
• New scientific results;
• New policy insights;
• Capacity building through increase scientific interaction
• Identification of technology options for decarbonization of the transport sector in India.
About ITF
• The International Transport Forum at the OECD is an intergovernmental organisation with 64 member countries.
o India is also a member of this organisation.
• ITF acts as a think tank for transport policy, and works for transport policies that improve peoples’ lives.
• ITF is the only global body that covers all transport modes.
• The ITF is administratively integrated with the OECD, yet it is politically autonomous.
• Its mission is to foster a deeper understanding of the role of transport in economic growth of a country, environmental sustainability and social inclusion.

• The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is a 38 member international organisation that works to build better policies for better lives.its goal is to shape policies that foster prosperity, equality, opportunity and well-being for all.
• It works with governments, policy makers and citizens to establish evidence-based international standards and finding solutions to a range of social, economic and environmental challenges.
• India is not a member of this organisation.
Modified Interest Subvention Scheme (MISS)
GS paper 2: Mobilisation of resources,
Important for
Prelims exam: MISS, Interest Subvention Scheme (ISS), Kisan Credit Card scheme

Mains exam: Doubling farmers income

Why in news
Cabinet approves Interest subvention of 1.5% per annum on Short Term Agriculture Loan upto Rupees Three lakh
How this scheme will work
• Government will provide Interest Subvention of 1.5% to lending institutions for the financial year 2022-23 to 2024-25 for lending short term agri-loans upto Rs 3 lakh to the farmers.
• These lending institute includes:
o Public Sector Banks
o Private Sector Bank
o Small Finance Banks
o Regional Rural Banks
o Cooperative Banks
o Computerised PACS directly ceded with commercial banks.
Benefits of this move
• Increase in Interest Subvention by 1.5% will ensure sustainability of credit flow in the agriculture sector.
• It will ensure financial health and viability of the lending institutions.
• It will help Regional Rural Banks & Cooperative Banks to ensure adequate agriculture credit in the rural economy.
• Banks will be able to absorb the increase in cost of funds.
• It will encourage banks to grant loans to farmers for short term agriculture requirements.
• This will also enable more farmers to get the benefit of agriculture credit.
• It will lead to generation of employment since short term agri-loans are provided for all activities including Animal Husbandry, Dairying, Poultry, fisheries.
Modified Interest Subvention Scheme (MISS)
The Government of India introduced Interest Subvention Scheme (ISS) to provide short term credit to farmers at subsidised interest rates. To ensure that farmers have to pay a minimal interest rate to the bank. Later ISS was renamed as Modified Interest Subvention Scheme (MISS).
• Under this scheme, short term agriculture loan upto Rs. 3.00 lakh is available to farmers engaged in Agriculture and other allied activities(Animal Husbandry, Dairying, Poultry, fisheries etc.) at the rate of 7% per annum
• Prompt Repayment Incentive – PRI: An additional 3% subvention is also given to the farmers for prompt and timely repayment of loans.
• Hence, if a farmer repays his loan on time, he gets credit at the rate of 4% per annum
• To enable this facility to the farmers, GoI provides Interest Subvention to the Financial Institutions offering this scheme.
Funding of the scheme
• This scheme is 100% funded by the Centre.

Kisan Credit card scheme(KCC)

• The Kisan Credit Card (KCC) scheme was launched in 1998 with the aim of providing short-term formal credit to farmers and was created by NABARD. This scheme ensures farmers with timely access to credit.
• The Kisan Credit Card scheme was introduced to ensure that the credit requirements for farmers in the agriculture, fisheries and animal husbandry sector were being met.
• This was done by helping them avail short-term loans and provide them with a credit limit to purchase equipment and for their other expenses as well.
• Moreover, with the help of KCC, farmers are exempt from the high interest rates of the regular loans offered by banks as the interest rate for KCC starts as low as 2% and averages at 4%.
• With the help of this scheme, farmers can repay their loans depending on the harvesting period of their crop for which the loan was given.

Air Quality and Health in Cities Report

GS paper 3: Conservation, Environmental pollution and degradation
Important for
Prelims exam: Air Quality and Health in Cities Report
Why in news
Delhi and Kolkata were ranked first and second in the list of top 10 most polluted cities when PM2.5 levels were compared in the recently published report.
About the Air Quality and Health in Cities Report
• The Air Quality and Health in Cities report is released by U.S.¬based Health Effects Institute.
• It analyses pollution and global health effects for more than 7,000 cities around the world.
• It mainly focuses on two of the most harmful pollutants,¬ one is fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and other is nitrogen dioxide (NO2).

Key finding of the report

• The report used the data from 2010 to 2019 and found that
o Exposures to PM2.5 pollution tend to be higher in cities located in low¬ and middle income countries
o Exposure to NO2 is high across cities in high¬ income as well as low¬ and middle income countries.
• When PM2.5 level is considered, Delhi and Kolkata reported an average annual exposure of 110 ug/m3 and 84 ug/m3 respectively(ug/m3 refers to micrograms per cubic metre).
• When NO2 level is compared no Indian city appeared in the list of top 20 polluted cities.
o Shanghai is at the top with an average annual exposure of 41 ug/m3.
o Other cities with high NO2 pollution levels included Moscow, Beijing, Paris, Istanbul and Seoul.
o Average NO2 levels for Delhi, Kolkata and Mumbai ranged from 20¬30 ug/m3.
• In 2019, 86% of the more than 7,000 cities analysed in the report exceeded the WHO’s 10 ug/m3 guideline for NO2, impacting about 2.6 billion people.
• In 2019, the global average NO2 exposure was 15.5 ug/ m3, but exposure levels varied considerably across cities.
Reason behind lower NO2 pollution level in India
• It is likely due to the relatively lower adoption of high¬ efficiency engine vehicles in India.
o Because complete combustion of fuel results in higher NOx (nitrogen oxides) where incomplete combustion sees other kinds of emissions.[/fusion_text][/fusion_builder_column][/fusion_builder_row][/fusion_builder_container]

Current Affairs

Recent Posts