GS PAPER II NEWS
Global Hunger Index 2021
Why in News
- The Global Hunger Index ‘The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World 2021’ ranked India at 101 positions of 116 countries.
Global Hunger Index
- India is also among the 31 countries where hunger has been identified as serious.
- India ranked 94 among 107 countries in the Global Hunger Index (GHI) released last year.
- According to the Index, only 15 countries fare worse than India.
- India was also behind most of the neighbouring countries. Pakistan was placed at 92, Nepal and Bangladesh at 76 and Sri Lanka at 65.
- Eighteen countries, including China, Brazil and Kuwait, shared the top rank with GHI score of less than five.
- GHI determines hunger on a 100-point scale, where 0 is the best possible score (no hunger) and 100 is the worst.
- Each country’s GHI score is classified by severity, from low to extremely alarming.
- Undernourishment data are provided by the Food and Agriculture Organisation and child mortality data are sourced from the U.N. Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation (UN IGME).
- Child wasting and stunting data are drawn from the joint database of UNICEF, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Bank, among others.
- For the 2021 GHI report, data were assessed for 135 countries. Out of these, there were sufficient data to calculate 2021 GHI scores for and rank 116 countries.
India on The methodology used by FAO
The Ministry of Women and Child Development said in a statement “They have based their assessment on the results of a ‘four question’ opinion poll, which was conducted telephonically by Gallup,” the Ministry of Women and Child Development said in a statement.
- The report, prepared jointly by Irish aid agency Concern Worldwide and German organisation Welt Hunger Hilfe, termed the level of hunger in India “alarming”.
- The publishing agencies of the Global Hunger Report, Concern Worldwide and Welt Hunger Hilfe have not done their due diligence before releasing the report.
GS PAPER II
BSF’s jurisdiction extended to three states
Why in News
- The Ministry of Home Affairs has decided to increase the jurisdiction of the Border Security Force (BSF) from 15 km to 50 km inside the International Border in the states of Punjab, West Bengal and Assam.
- The decision has been taken to “improve operational efficiency” and “to crack down on smuggling rackets”.
- The Ministry of Home Affairs, in a gazette notification dated October 11, 2021, has said that it is amending the notification of the year 2014 on the jurisdiction of the BSF to exercise its powers in the states where it borders the International Border.
The jurisdiction of BSF has now been increased to 35 km in Punjab, Assam and West Bengal and in Gujarat this jurisdiction has been reduced to 30 km.
- The Ministry of Home Affairs also said that, the new jurisdiction of BSF includes the entire area of Union Territories like Manipur, Tripura, Mizoram, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh and along the borders of India with Rajasthan, Gujarat, Covers an area of fifty kilometers from the states of Punjab, West Bengal and Assam.
- The Border Security Force (BSF) can now conduct searches, seizures and arrest of suspects within its jurisdiction.
- Following the suggestions of the Border Security Force, changes have been made in the jurisdiction of the BSF under the Border Security Force Act, 1968. The main objective behind this move is to keep the operational jurisdiction of BSF uniform across these states.
Punjab and West Bengal’s reaction
- The jurisdiction of BSF in Punjab, Assam and West Bengal has now been extended to 50 km from the International Border within Indian Territory. In Gujarat, it has been reduced to 50 km from the earlier 80 km.
- The home ministry’s move has drawn criticism from opposition-ruled states of Punjab and West Bengal, who have called it a “direct attack on federalism” and an attempt to “intervene through central agencies”.
- An official of the Union Home Ministry has said that “the sole purpose of this notification is to improve the operational efficiency of BSF and help them in cracking down on smuggling rackets”.
- Punjab has a drug and arms smuggling problem and Assam and West Bengal face new challenges in the form of cattle and counterfeit currency smuggling and these borders are also highly vulnerable to illegal migration.
What is Border Security Force?
- The Border Security Force (BSF) is a border security organization of India, responsible for the defense of India’s border with Pakistan and Bangladesh.
- BSF was established on December 01, 1965 to ensure the security of India’s borders, in the midst of the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965.
- BSF is said to be the first line of defense of Indian territories and is currently the largest border guarding force in the world.
GS PAPER II
United nations human rights council
Why in News
- India has been re-elected to the United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC).
- India’s tenure at the UNHRC will be from 2022 to 2024.
- After being elected as a member, India said that it would continue to work for the promotion and protection of human rights through respect, dialogue and cooperation.
- UNHRC member states are elected by secret ballot at the United Nations.
- India’s Permanent Mission to the United Nations has given information about being elected as a member of the UNHRC by tweeting. He wrote that India was re-elected to the UNHRC for the sixth time with an overwhelming majority.
- India got 184 votes in the 193-member United Nations General Assembly, while the required majority was 97.
- India’s election was held through secret ballot and India won a huge majority in it.
- After this, the Indian Mission in the United Nations said to continue working for the promotion and protection of human rights through respect, dialogue and cooperation.
- Apart from India, these countries also became members
- The United Nations General Assembly selected Argentina, Benin, Cameroon, Eritrea, Finland, Zambia, Honduras, India, Kazakhstan, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malaysia, Montenegro, Paraguay, Qatar, Somalia, the United Arab Emirates and the United States by secret ballot.
How are the members of the UNHRC elected?
- The United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC) consists of 47 member states.
- They are elected through the United Nations General Assembly.
- The seat distribution of the member countries of this council has been done on the basis of geographical basis.
In this, 13 members are elected from Africa and Asia Pacific region.
- In addition, 8 members are elected from South America and Caribbean countries, 7 from Western Europe and 6 from Eastern Europe.
United Nations human rights council
- The Human Rights Council is a body of the United Nations that works for the protection of human rights around the world.
- This council was formed in the year 2006 through the United Nations General Assembly.
- Earlier the United Nations Human Rights Commission used to do this work.
- The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) serves as the secretariat of the Human Rights Council.
- Its headquarter is located in Geneva, Switzerland.
GS PAPER III
Bhutan-China Boundary Dialogue Agreement and India
Why in News
- India has “noted” the agreement on a “three-stage roadmap” to expedite negotiations to resolve the border dispute between Bhutan and China.
- main point
- The agreement comes four years after Indian and Chinese armies closed a 73-day standoff at the Doklam tri-junction when China tried to expand a road in an area claimed by Bhutan. .
- We have noted the signing of the Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) between Bhutan and China today.
- Bhutan and China are having border talks since 1984. Similarly, India-China is holding border talks”.
- Bhutan said in a statement that its Foreign Minister Lyonpo Tandi Dorji and China’s Assistant Foreign Minister Wu Jianghao on Thursday signed a memorandum of understanding for a “three-stage roadmap” to accelerate Bhutan-China border talks. The Bhutanese Foreign Ministry said that, “The MoU on a three-stage roadmap will give a new impetus to these border negotiations.”
- It is expected that the implementation of this roadmap in a spirit of mutual goodwill, understanding and reconciliation will lead to a successful conclusion of the border talks which will be acceptable to both sides.
- The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Bhutan also said in a statement that, “The border talks, conducted in the spirit of agreement and accommodation, are the joint communiqué on the 1988 Guiding Principles for the Settlement of Border Disputes and the Bhutan-China Border Area.” for the maintenance of peace, stability and status quo in the year 1998 as directed by the Convention”.
- Background of border talks between Bhutan and China
- Bhutan shares a border of over 400 km with China and the two countries have so far held 24 rounds of border talks to resolve the dispute.
- During the 10th meeting of the Expert Group in Kunming in April this year, the two sides agreed on a three-stage roadmap that would be based on the 1988 Guiding Principles and help expedite the ongoing border negotiations.
GS PAPER III
Seven new defense companies
Why in News
- Seven new defense companies of Ordnance Factory Board (OFB) were dedicated to the nation in an event organized by the Defense Ministry.
- In order to enhance operational autonomy, efficiency and bring in new growth potential and innovation, the Government had decided to convert OFB from a Government Department to seven percent state-owned corporate companies as a measure to improve self-reliance in defense preparedness of the country. .
- The seven new defense companies are: Munitions India Limited (MIL); Armored Vehicles Corporation Limited (Avni); Advanced Weapons and Equipment India Limited (AWE India); Troop Comforts Limited (TCL) (Troop Comfort Items); Yantra India Limited (YIL); India Optel Limited (IOL) and Gliders India Limited (GIL).
- These companies have started business from October 01, 2021.
- Speaking on the occasion, the Prime Minister said that the up-gradation of these companies was overlooked in the post-independence period, making the country dependent on foreign suppliers for its needs. “These 7 defense companies will play a major role in changing this situation,” he said.
- The Prime Minister outlined the various initiatives and reforms undertaken in the recent past that have instilled trust, transparency and technology driven approach in the defense sector like never before. He said that today the private and public sectors are working together in the mission of national security. He cited the Uttar Pradesh and Tamil Nadu defense corridors as examples of the new approach. He said that new opportunities are emerging for youth and MSMEs; the country is witnessing the result of policy changes that have taken place in recent years. “Our defense exports have grown by 325 per cent in the last five years,” he said.
- These new companies will play an important role in reducing imports in line with the vision of ‘Self-reliant India’.
- The order booking of over Rs 65,000 crore reflects the country’s growing trust in these companies.
- The decision will give autonomy to these companies and improve accountability and efficiency in the functioning of the 41 factories under them.
- The new structure will help in removing various shortcomings in the existing system of OFB and provide incentives to these companies to become competitive and explore new opportunities in the market including exports, while protecting the interests of the employees.
- The objective of this restructuring is to convert ordnance factories into productive and profitable assets; improving the efficiency of the product chain; increase competition; improve quality; to make the product affordable and ensure self-sufficiency in defense preparedness.
- The Defense Ministry has set a target of achieving a turnover of Rs 1.75 lakh crore in aerospace and defense equipment and services by 2024, which includes exports of Rs 35,000 crore.