GS PAPER I NEWS
Bhagwan Birsa Munda Museum
Why in News
- Prime Minister Narendra Modi inaugurated the country’s first tribal museum through video conferencing.
- This museum has been built in Ranchi, the capital of Jharkhand. Prime Minister Modi had talked about opening a tribal museum a few years ago to save the traditions of the tribal society.
- Jharkhand state, which came into existence as an independent state on November 15, 2000, after separating from Bihar, is celebrating its foundation day.
- The government had recently announced that the birth anniversary of Birsa Munda on November 15 would be observed as ‘Tribal Pride Day’.
- Prime Minister Narendra Modi said that I dedicate this decision at the feet of tribal freedom fighters, heroes. I have spent a major part of my life with tribal brothers, sisters and children. I have been a witness to the needs of his life, today is a very emotional day for me.
- PM said that I congratulate the tribal society of the whole country, every citizen of India for the Bhagwan Birsa Munda Memorial Udyan cum Freedom Fighter Museum. This museum, the contribution of tribal heroes and heroines in the freedom struggle, will become a living establishment of our tribal culture full of diversity.
- The Central Government has announced to celebrate the birth anniversary of Birsa Munda as ‘Tribal Pride Day’.
- Birth anniversary of Birsa Munda Munda was born in 1875 in the tribal area of undivided Bihar.
- Most of his childhood was spent traveling from village to village with his parents. They belonged to the Munda tribe in the Chotanagpur plateau region.
- He had his early education in Salga under the guidance of his teacher Jaipal Nag.
- Birsa Munda was close to the Sardars’ movement during 1886 to 1890. This movement left a deep impact on him and he joined the anti-missionary and anti-government program.
- After this, by the time he left Chaibasa in 1890, Birsa had also joined the movement against British oppression of tribal communities.
- He started the movement for waiver of rent (tax) from the British on 01 October 1894. For which he was arrested in 1895 and sentenced to two years imprisonment in Hazaribagh Central Prison.
- After the sentence was over, he called for an armed revolution against the British. He mobilized the tribals against the British colonial rule and conversion activities. He died in the year 1900 in Ranchi Jail.
GS PAPER I
Why in News
- To celebrate the prestigious and ancient heritage and culture of Kashi, a three-day program ‘Kashi Utsav’ is being organized in Varanasi.
- In particular, the event will focus on centuries old poets and writers like Goswami Tulsidas, Sant Kabir, Sant Raidas, Bhartendu Harishchandra, Munshi Premchand and Shri Jaishankar Prasad.
- This event will be organized at Rudraksh International Cooperation and Convention Center in Varanasi from November 16 to 18, 2021.
- Indira Gandhi National Center for the Arts on behalf of the Ministry of Culture, Government of India in collaboration with the State Government of Uttar Pradesh and Varanasi Administration under ‘Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav’ to celebrate 75 years of Progressive India at the initiative of the Government of India. IGNCA is hosting the event.
- Varanasi or Kashi has been chosen for this festival because of its rich cultural heritage and splendid history and resplendent beauty.
- India’s longest river Ganga flows through Kashi and has been a source of inspiration for the city’s artists, scholars and writers, including the six eminent personalities selected for the event.
- The festival will help bring to the fore the coveted glory of Kashi which gives birth to the mythology of each time period.
GS PAPER III
Air quality index
Why in News
- The air quality and pollution city tracking service of Switzerland-based climate group AQI, which is also a technology partner of the United Nations Environment Program, has shown that, in a list of ten cities with the worst air quality indices, India’s three major Cities are also included.
- While Delhi tops the list by AQI service with an average AQI of 556, Kolkata ranks fourth in the overall list and Mumbai is at the sixth position.
- Cities with the worst AQI index include Lahore city of Pakistan and Chengdu city of China.
10 major cities in the world with the worst air quality according to AQI
- Delhi, India (AQI: 556)
- Lahore, Pakistan (AQI: 354)
- Sofia, Bulgaria (AQI: 178)
- Kolkata, India (AQI: 177)
- Zagreb, Croatia (AQI: 173)
- Mumbai, India (AQI: 169)
- Belgrade, Serbia (AQI: 165)
- Chengdu, China (AQI: 165)
- Skopje, North Macedonia (AQI: 164)
- Krakow, Poland (AQI: 160)
Statement from Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology
- Notably, the Decision Support System (DSS) estimates of the Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (IITM), which provide forecasts for Delhi’s air quality and identify the components of pollution, have stated that, CO has also received these pollutants from other cities such as Jhajjar, Gurugram, Baghpat, Ghaziabad and Sonipat.
- DSS analysis revealed that, in the past, paddy stubble fires contributed 15 per cent to Delhi’s PM 2.5 (ultrafine particulate matter with diameter less than 2.5 micrometres), which is caused by local vehicles. Emissions accounted for 25 percent of this air pollution, with emissions from households contributing 7 percent.
- The level of particulate matter and the percentage of industries in Delhi and its periphery account for 09-10 percent of the city’s pollution.
- The Air Quality Monitoring Center (SAFAR) of the Union Ministry of Earth Sciences has said that at least 35 percent pollutants were detected in the air on Friday from this stubble fire.
GS PAPER III
S-400 Missile System
Why in News
- Russia has started supplying the S-400 surface-to-air missile system to India.
- This missile system will make India’s security system impenetrable. This supply is happening as per the plan. Federal Service for Military Technical Cooperation (FSMTC) director Dmitry Shugaev gave this information to Sputnik ahead of the Dubai Airshow
- According to Indian defense sources, parts of the S-400 air defense missile system have started reaching India. They will first be deployed near the western border with Pakistan, from where it can deal with the threat of Pakistan and China from the western and northern borders. This system will provide security to India from a threat of up to 400 km.
S-400 missile system
- This missile system is equipped with four different missiles. The S-400 air defense missile can hit 36 targets simultaneously.
- The S-400 air defense missile can hit enemy warships, drones, aircraft and ballistic missiles at a range of 400 km.
- According to Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), this missile is one of the best air defense systems in the world.
- The advanced radar of the S-400 is capable of destroying its target by seeing and tracking it up to a distance of 400 km.
- They are also capable of hitting ballistic missiles and hypersonic targets.
- This supersonic air defense system consists of supersonic and hypersonic missiles which are adept at hitting the target. This missile is counted among the world’s most advanced anti-aircraft weapons.
- The S-400 is touted as Russia’s most advanced long-range surface-to-air missile defense system.
- India in October 2018 signed a deal with Russia to buy the S-400 air defense system for about Rs 35,000 crore.
- Russia is supplying 5 Squadron to India to deal with air threats in this deal.
- Our rivals China and Turkey already have the S-400 air defense system.