Daily Current Affairs for 14th Sep 2023

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Operation Polo: 75 Years Since the Indian Army Ensured Hyderabad Became Part of the Union

Why in the news?

Recently, Operation Polo marked the 75th anniversary of the military operation that annexed the princely state of Hyderabad into the Indian Union.

What is Operation Polo?

  • On September 13, 1948, the Indian Army launched Operation Polo, a military operation to annex the princely state of Hyderabad into the Indian Union. Hyderabad was the largest and wealthiest of the princely states, and its ruler, the Nizam, was reluctant to join India.
  • Nizam had made overtures to Pakistan and had even raised a private army, the Razakars, to resist Indian integration.

The Military Action

  • The Indian Army launched Operation Polo from four different directions: the west, the north, the south, and the east.
  • The main thrust of the attack came from the west, where the Indian 1st Armoured Division quickly overwhelmed the Razakar forces.
  • The other three thrusts were also successful, and by September 17, the Nizam had surrendered.


The integration of Hyderabad into India was a major victory for the Indian government. It helped to consolidate the country’s borders and prevent the emergence of a separate Muslim state in the south. However, the operation also led to widespread violence, with thousands of people killed or displaced.



Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism (CBAM)

Why in news?

Recently, the Indian government has assured that it will take all necessary steps to protect Indian industry from any adverse impact of the European Union’s Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism (CBAM).

  • The government has also said that it is working to decarbonise the Indian economy and that it is confident that the Indian industry will be able to adapt to the CBAM.

What is the CBAM?

  • The Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism (CBAM) is a carbon tariff that will be imposed on certain imports into the EU from countries that do not have a carbon pricing system in place.
  • The aim of the CBAM is to ensure that imported goods do not have a competitive advantage over domestically produced goods that have been subject to carbon pricing.

The CBAM will be implemented in two phases: In the first phase, which will start in 2023, importers will be required to report the carbon emissions associated with their imports. In the second phase, which will start in 2026, importers will be required to pay a carbon tariff on their imports.


The CBAM is a significant challenge for India, but it is also an opportunity to accelerate the decarbonisation of the Indian economy. By taking the right steps, India can ensure that the CBAM does not harm its economy and can even help it to become a more competitive player in the global market.



India’s Aditya-L1 Mission to Study the Sun and Space Weather

Why in news?

On September 2, 2023, the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) launched the Aditya-L1 mission, its first space mission to explore the activities of the sun.

  • The mission will study the sun’s magnetic fields, ultraviolet radiation, and the flow of energy in its outer atmosphere. It will also try to understand how violent solar storms are born.

What is space weather?

Space weather is the condition of the space environment around Earth. It is caused by the sun’s activity, such as solar flares and coronal mass ejections.

Space weather can affect our planet in a number of ways, including:

  • Disrupting communications and GPS navigation
  • Damaging satellites and spacecraft
  • Causing power outages
  • Affecting air traffic
  • Triggering auroras
  • The importance of Aditya-L1

Aditya-L1 is important because it will help us to better understand space weather and its effects on Earth. The mission will provide valuable data that can be used to develop better space weather forecasting models. This will help us to protect our critical infrastructure and mitigate the risks posed by space weather.



Global Stocktake Report

Why in news?

Recently, the Global Stocktake Report released by the United Nations climate secretariat has found that the world is not on track to meet the goals of the Paris Agreement.

  • The report finds that global greenhouse gas emissions are still rising, and that current pledges by countries are not enough to keep global warming below 2 degrees Celsius, let alone 1.5 degrees Celsius.

What is the Global Stocktake Report?

  • It is a periodic review of the progress that countries are making towards achieving the Paris Agreement targets.
  • The report was prepared by the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) secretariat.
  • The report was based on data from 195 countries. It was released on March 8, 2023.
  • The report was the first of its kind to be released under the Paris Agreement.

The report’s key findings include:

  • Global greenhouse gas emissions are still rising, and are projected to reach 58 gigatonnes of CO2 equivalent in 2030, even if all current pledges are met.
  • To limit warming to 1.5 degrees Celsius, global emissions need to peak before 2025 and reach net zero by 2050.
  • To limit warming to 2 degrees Celsius, global emissions need to peak before 2030 and reach net zero by 2070.
  • Current pledges by countries are not enough to meet either of these targets.


  • The report is a stark warning that the world is running out of time to address climate change. It is clear that much more needs to be done to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and transition to a clean energy economy.



Transfer of personal data under UN treaty will be under domestic laws: India

Why in news?

  • As United Nations member states negotiate a treaty to counter cybercrimes, India has made suggestions at the international forum that transfer of “personal data” under the convention will be done in accordance with the country’s domestic laws and not other applicable international laws.

India’s Data Law

  • The Digital Personal Data Protection Act enacted by Parliament in says that personal data can be processed “in the interest of sovereignty and integrity of India or security of the state” for “fulfilling any obligation under law”.
  • The Act that came into force after receiving assent from the President of India requires firms to disclose to users the identity of other firms to which their data would be entrusted for processing, but they are explicitly exempted from disclosing or sharing of such data in the case of lawful interception of data.

UN Cyber Crime Convention and other Laws

  • The Union Home Ministry recently reviewed the draft of the UN Cyber Crime Convention to discuss the necessary changes in the existing systems if this convention is signed and ratified by India.
  • The convention, which has been at the negotiating table for the past three years, is expected to be ratified at the UN General Assembly in 2024.
  • India also agreed to the clause that state parties may transfer personal data to a third country only with the prior written authorization of the original transferring state party.
  • At the sixth session of the “Ad Hoc Committee to Elaborate a Comprehensive International Convention on Countering the Use of Information and Communications Technologies for Criminal Purposes”, India asked for the deletion of a clause encouraging state parties to “establish multilateral arrangements” to transfer personal data.



President launches Ayushman Bhav health campaign

Why in news?

  • President Droupadi Murmu virtually launched an Ayushman Bhav campaign and portal from the Raj Bhavan in Gandhinagar.

About the campaign

  • The campaign aims to deliver healthcare services to the last mile and consolidate access and affordability for underserved populations.
  • The campaign will increase the involvement and support of local governance in this endeavour and the gram panchayats who successfully achieved their goals would be declared as Ayushman gram panchayats.
  • The campaign will help to further facilitate access of Ayushman cards, generate ABHA IDs, and raise awareness of health schemes and disease conditions, such as non-communicable diseases, tuberculosis, and sickle cell disease.
  • The Seva Pakhwada initiative strives to ensure that every individual receives essential health services.

Significance of the Campaign

  • Launch of the campaign and the portal marked a significant leap towards achieving Universal Health Coverage (UHC) and ensuring healthcare for all as it strives to further consolidate the accessibility and affordability of healthcare services particularly for the underserved.
  • The president praised the multi-ministerial approach adopted by the Ayushman Bhav campaign to achieve the ambitious goal of delivering healthcare services to the last mile of India, saying that this will play a role in the accomplishment of this endeavour.
  • It underscores the philosophy of antyodaya, which means good health for all and leaving no one behind.
  • It highlights the role of the government and its commitment to achieve the set sustainable development goals in due time.



Earth outside its safe operating space

Why in news?

  • Earth is exceeding its “safe operating space for humanity” in six of nine key measurements of its health, and two of the remaining three are headed in the wrong direction, a new study said.

About the recent study

  • Earth’s climate, biodiversity, land, freshwater, nutrient pollution and “novel” chemicals (human-made compounds like microplastics and nuclear waste) are all out of whack, a group of international scientists said in journal Science Advances.
  • Only the acidity of the oceans, the health of the air and the ozone layer are within the boundaries considered safe, and both ocean and air pollution are heading in the wrong direction.

Similar attempt in 2009

  • In 2009, Mr. Rockstrom and other researchers created nine different broad boundary areas and used scientific measurements to judge Earth’s health as a whole.
  • This paper was an update from 2015 and it added a sixth factor to the unsafe category.
  • Water went from barely safe to the out-of-bounds category because of worsening river run-off and better measurements and understanding of the problem.
  • The nine factors have been “scientifically well established” by numerous outside studies as well. If Earth can manage these nine factors, Earth could be relatively safe. But currently it’s not.

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