GS PAPER I NEWS

Bohag Bihu

Why in News

Recently Bohag Bihu, the first day of the New Year celebrated in Assam.

Bohag Bihu

  • April is the month of New Year in Hindu calendar and every state celebrate it differently.
  • One of its celebrations is ‘Bohag Bihu’ which celebrated at Assam every year on 14th April.
  • It is also known as ‘Rangoli Bihu’ promotes the celebration of ethnic diversity.
  • It is essentially a harvest festival which aims to unite the different native communities of Assam.
  • In this festival, farmers express gratitude and usher in the spring season.
  • 1280px-Bihu3.jpg The festival lasts for seven days and they are known as Raati Bihu, Sot Bihu, Goru Bihu, Manuh Bihu, Kutum Bihu, Mela Bihu and Sera Bihu.
  • The first day of Bihu is dedicated to cows. In morning, people take their cows to a lake or river and give them a wash.
  • The second day people dress up and exchange gifts.
  • The third day is always dedicated to the worship of deities.
  • The fourth day, called Bohagi Bidai or Phato Bihu is the final day of the festival, marked by wrapping up the celebrations.
  • Bihu is observed at the same time as Baisakhi in Punjab, Poila Baisakh in Bengal, Puthandu in Tamil Nadu, and Vishu in Kerala.

Seven Days of Bohag Bihu

  • Raati Bihu: Raati Bihu is the first phase begins on the first night of the month of Sot and lasts till Uruka. It was celebrated in the villages and was meant as a gathering for the local women. The participation of men was mostly ceremonial.
  • Sot Bihu: Sot Bihu is also called Bali Husori begins on the second day of the month of Sot Mah. On this day Bihu songs and dances are organized till the occurrence of Uruka, the formal beginning of Rongali Bihu.
  • Goru Bihu: Goru Bihu is related to the agricultural roots of Assam and the reverence of livestock which provided an ancient method of livelihood. On the last date of Sot month or the first day of Rongali Bihu is dedicated to the caring upkeep of livestock and a cattle show.
  • Manuh Bihu: The first day of the Bohag month marks Manuh Bihu (‘Manuh’ symbolises “Elders” and Ancestral Spirits). People give offerings to the elders and the ancestral spirits and ask for blessings.
  • Kutum Bihu: The second date of Bohag Mah is Kutum Bihu (“Kutum” symbolises “Kin”). On this day people visit their families, relatives and friends and have lunch or dinner together and share news and stories.
  • Mela Bihu: The third day of Bihu is marked by the celebration of Bihu with cultural events and competitions in outdoor locales (Mela symbolises “Fair”).
  • Sera Bihu: Also called Bohagi Bidai, Phato Bihu it is the fourth and final day of Rongali Bihu. In different regions of Assam, people celebrate it differently but the common theme is wrapping up the celebrations with contemplation and future resolutions.

Hindu calendar

  • It is also known as Panchang refers to a set of various luni-solar calendars that are traditionally used in the Indian subcontinent and South-east Asia.

GS PAPER II

Places of Worship (Special Provisions) Act, 1991

Why in News

The managing committee of the Gyanvapi mosque in Varanasi and the Uttar Pradesh Sunni Central Waqf Board has moved the Allahabad High Court to restrain the proceedings of a local court which recently directed the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI).

Key Points

  • Recently the local court of Allahabad directed the ASI to conduct a physical survey of the mosque compound adjacent to the Kashi Vishwanath temple.
  • ASI_EPS.jpg The Court directed the ASI to find out whether it was a “superimposition, alteration or addition or there is structural overlapping of any kind, with or over, any other religious structure.
  • It was the statement of the Court that if excavation or extraction was to be done at any portion of the structure, it should be first done by trial trench method vertically.
  • In an against, the managing committee in Varanasi and the Uttar Pradesh Sunni Central Waqf Board challenged the maintainability of a civil suit pending before the Varanasi district court regarding the title dispute in the case.

Gyanvapi Mosque

  • The Gyanvapi mosque is located in Varanasi; Uttar Pradesh was constructed on the site of the Kashi Vishwanath temple.
  • The mosque was built during the reign of the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb in 1669 CE, after he had a Hindu temple demolished.
  • The remnants of the Hindu temple can be seen on the walls of the Gyanvapi mosque.

Kashi Vishwanath temple

  • Kashi Vishwanath Temple is one of the most famous Hindu temples dedicated to Lord Shiva.
  • It is located in Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh.
  • It is one of the twelve Jyotirlingas, or Jyotirlingams, the holiest of Shiva Temples.
  • The main deity is known by the names Shri Vishwanath and Vishweshwara.
  • The temple is mentioned in the Puranas including the Kashi Khanda (section) of Skanda Purana.
  • The original Vishwanath temple was destroyed by army of Aibak in 1194 CE, when he defeated the Raja of Kannauj as a commander of Mohammad Ghori.
  • In 1780, it was built by Maharani Ahilyabai Holkar.

Places of Worship (Special Provisions) Act, 1991

  • The Places of Worship (Special Provisions) Act, 1991 law was passed in 1991 by the P V Narasimha Rao government.
  • This law seeks to manage the “religious character” of places of worship as it was in 1947 except in the case of Ram Janmabhoomi-Babri Masjid dispute, which was already in court.
  • The objective of the law is to ban the transformation of any religious place and to provide for the maintenance of the religious character of any religious place as it existed on the 15th day of August, 1947, and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.
  • Section 3 and 4 of the Act related to the ban on the conversion of religious places and that no person shall convert any religious places of any religious denomination into one of a different denomination or section.
  • Section 4(2) of the act states that the proceedings regarding converting the character of religious places which pending on August 15, 1947, will stand abated when the Act commences and no fresh proceedings can be filed.
  • Section 6 of the Act penalizes a punishment of maximum three years imprisonment along with a fine for violating laws of the Act.

Archeological Survey of India

  • The Archaeological Survey of India is an Indian government organization under the Ministry of Culture.
  • It is responsible for archaeological research and the conservation and preservation of cultural monuments in the country.
  • It was founded in 1861 by Alexander Cunningham who also became its first Director-General.
  • The first systematic research was conducted by the Asiatic Society, which was founded by the British Ideologist William Jones on 15 January 1784.

GS PAPER II

Dr Babasaheb Ambedkar

Why in News

The Prime Minister has paid tribute to Bharat Ratna Dr Babasaheb Ambedkar on his Jayanti on 14TH April 2021.

unnamed.pngDr Babasaheb Ambedkar

  • Dr Bababsaheb Ambedkar was an Indian jurist, economist, politician and social reformer.
  • He inspired the Dalit Buddhist movement and campaigned against social discrimination towards the untouchables (Dalits).
  • He is also known as the ‘Father of the Nation’.
  • He was born on 14 April 1891 in the city of Mhow, Central Provinces (now in Madhya Pradesh).
  • On 29 August 1947, he was appointed as the Chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee by the Constituent Assembly to frame India’s new Constitution.
  • Ambedkar was the first Indian to pursue a doctorate in economics abroad.

Role of Ambedkar in framing Constitution of India

  • On 15th August 1947 British Government leave the Indian by transferring power to the Mahatma Gandhi & others, & Jawaharlal Nehru became first Prime Minister of India without election.
  • The Constituent Assembly of India was formed on 6 December 1946.
  • Dr. B. R. Ambedkar was appointed as the president of drafting Committee of the Indian Constitution by the Constituent Assembly.
  • All responsibility of Indian Constitution was on the head of Dr. Ambedkar, though the committee of 7 members.
  • Granville Austin described the Indian Constitution drafted by Ambedkar asfirst and foremost a social document’.
  • Ambedkar argued for:
  • Extensive economic and social rights for women.
  • He won the Assembly’s support for introducing a system of reservations of jobs in the civil services, schools and colleges for members of scheduled castes and scheduled tribes and Other Backward Class, a system akin to affirmative action.
  • India’s lawmakers hoped to eradicate the socio-economic inequalities and lack of opportunities for India’s depressed classes through these measures.
  • The Constitution was adopted on 26 November 1949 by the Constituent Assembly.
  • Ambedkar opposed Article 370 of the Constitution of India, which granted a special status to the State of Jammu and Kashmir, and which was included against his wishes.
  • During the debates in the Constituent Assembly, Ambedkar demonstrated his will to reform Indian society by recommending the adoption of a Uniform Civil Code.
  • Ambedkar resigned from the cabinet in 1951, when parliament stalled his draft of the Hindu Code Bill, which sought to enshrine gender equality in the laws of inheritance and marriage. Ambedkar resigned from the cabinet in 1951, when parliament stalled his draft of the Hindu Code Bill, which sought to enshrine gender equality in the laws of inheritance and marriage.

GS PAPER II

Raisina Dialogue

Why in News

The 6th Edition of the prestigious Raisina Dialogue will be held virtually from 13-16 April, 2021.

Key Points

  • The Raisina Dialogue is jointly organized by the Ministry of External Affairs and the Observer Research Foundation.
  • The theme for the 2021 Edition is “#ViralWorld: Outbreaks, Outliers and Out of Control”.
  • The current edition of the Raisina Dialogue was taking place at a watershed moment in human history in the backdrop of COVID-19 pandemic which has been ravaging the world for more than a year.
  • The Prime Minister emphasized that the global systems should adapt themselves, in order to address the underlying causes and not just the symptoms.

fclglw3W_400x400.jpgRaisina Dialogue

  • The Raisina Dialogue is India’s premier conference on geopolitics and geo-economics.
  • It established in 2016.
  • The Objective is to addressing the most challenging issues facing the global community.
  • The first Raisina Dialogue was held from March 1–3, 2016. Over 100 speakers from over 35 countries attended to speak on the theme, “Asia: Regional and Global Connectivity”.
  • It conducted every year in New Delhi where leaders in politics, business, media, and civil society converge to discuss the state of the world and explore opportunities for cooperation on a wide range of contemporary matters.
  • It is a multi-stakeholder, cross sectoral discussion, involving heads of state, cabinet ministers and local government officials who are joined by thought leaders from the private sector, media and academia.

Observer Research Foundation

  • It is an independent global think tank based in Delhi, India established in 1990 at the juncture of ideation tempered by pragmatism.
  • The foundation has three centers in Mumbai, Chennai and Kolkata.
  • Objective of ORF is:-
  • To aid and formulation of government policies.
  • Enabling representation of a broad section of opinions from all walks of life to strengthen India’s democracy.
  • Providing a coherent, well-thought out policy formulations and recommendations to improve governance.
  • Improving economic development and consequently bettering the quality of life for Indian citizens.
  • Giving directions to India’s foreign policy objectives.

.GS PAPER III

S-400 Air Defense Systems

Why in News

According to the senior defense official the delivery of the S-400 long range air defense systems is expected to be delivering at November 2021 despite the COVID-19 pandemic.

Key Points

  • In October 2018, India had signed a $5.43 billion deal with Russia for five S-400 regiments despite objections from the U.S., with deliveries scheduled to begin end 2021.
  • It is hoping that the U.S. sanctions on the deal under the Countering America’s Adversaries through Sanctions Act (CAATSA) will dismiss.

Significance for S-400 Technology

  • The high-end technology S-400 would give a fillip and make up for its falling fighter aircraft squadrons in the medium-term.
  • The S-400 air defense systems can be the “game changers” and “booster dose” for the Indian Air Force.

S-400 long range Air Defense Systems

  • The S-400 Triumph is an Air Defense Missile System developed by Almaz Central Design Bureau of Russia.
  • The S-400 was developed as an upgraded version of S-300 series of surface-to-air missile systems.
  • The system entered service in April 2007 and the first S-400 was deployed in combat in August 2007.
  • It can destroy airborne targets within 250km and capable to destroy fast moving targets such as fighter aircraft.
  • It is the most dangerous operationally deployed modern long-range SAM (MLR SAM) in the world, considered much ahead of the US-developed Terminal High Altitude Area Defense system (THAAD).

India-Russia deal on S-400 Missile System

  • Despite having objections from the US and the threat of sanctions under Countering America’s Adversaries through Sanctions Act (CAATSA) India signed a 5.43 billion USD deal with Russia for the S-400 Triumph missile system.

Countering America’s Adversaries through Sanctions Act (CAATSA)

  • CAATSA is the Unite State federal law that imposed sanctions on Iran, North Korea, and Russia.
  • According to the law, the US imposes sanctions against the nations that engage in significant transactions with Russia’s defense and intelligence sectors.