GS PAPER II NEWS
Prime Minister Gati Shakti National Master Plan
Why in News
- Prime Minister Narendra Modi launched the ‘PM Gati Shakti National Master Plan’. Gati Shakti will be the master plan of national infrastructure for the country.
- Under this scheme of Rs 100 lakh crore, 16 ministries including rail and road will be digitally connected. This will accelerate the infrastructure development projects.
- Under this, initially 16 such ministries have been identified which deal with basic infrastructure development.
- Under this, 16 ministries and departments have put all those projects in Geographic Information System (GIS) mode, which are to be completed by 2024-25.
- Prime Minister Narendra Modi had announced the Gati Shakti Yojana on 15 August.
- PM Gatishakti will resolve all the past issues by institutionalizing the overall plan for all stakeholders for major infrastructure projects.
- Projects will be designed and implemented in a common approach, rather than being planned and designed in isolation from each other.
- It will cover infrastructure schemes of various ministries and state governments such as Bharatmala, Sagarmala, inland waterways, dry/land ports, UDAN, etc.
- Economic sectors like Textile Cluster, Pharmaceutical Cluster, Defense Corridor, Electronic Park, Industrial Corridor, Fishing Cluster, Agri Zone will be covered to improve connectivity and make Indian businesses even more competitive.
- There will also be extensive use of various technologies including spatial planning tools with ISRO imagery developed by BISAG-N (Bhaskaracharya National Institute of Space Applications and Geo-Informatics).
- PM Gatishakti is the result of the Prime Minister’s relentless efforts to build a next-generation infrastructure that makes life easier as well as easier to do business.
- Multi-modal connectivity will provide integrated and seamless connectivity for the movement of people, goods, and services from one mode of transport to another. The move will facilitate last-mile connectivity to the infrastructure and also reduce the travel time.
- PM Gatishakti will provide information to the public and business community about upcoming connectivity projects, other business centers, industrial areas, and the surrounding environment.
- It will enable investors to plan their business at suitable locations which will lead to increased interaction. It will create many employment opportunities and boost the economy.
- It will improve the global competitiveness of local products by cutting logistics costs and improving the supply chain and ensuring optimal linkages between local industry and consumers.
PM Gatishakti is based on six pillars:
- Comprehensiveness: This will include details of all existing and planned initiatives of various Ministries and Departments in one centralized portal. Now each department will have the facility to keep abreast of each other’s activities while exchanging important data in the course of comprehensive planning and execution of projects.
- Priority: Through this various departments will be able to give priority to their projects through interactions related to various sectors.
- Maximize Utilization: This National Master Plan will assist various ministries in planning various projects after identifying critical gaps. This master plan will help in choosing the most efficient route in terms of time and cost to move goods from one place to another.
- Harmonization: Different ministries and departments often work in isolation from each other. There is a lack of coordination among them regarding the planning and implementation of the projects which results in delays. PM Gatishakti will help in bringing about overall harmony between the activities of each department as well as ensuring coordination of work among different layers of the governance system.
- Analytical: This master plan will provide complete data at one place through GIS-based spatial planning and analytical tools with more than 200 layers, which will facilitate the implementation agency in its functioning.
- Mobility: All Ministries and Departments will now be able to visualize, review and monitor the progress of projects related to diverse sectors through the GIS platform, as satellite imagery will provide periodic information on the progress on the ground and projects accordingly. The progress of the information will be regularly updated on the portal. This step will help in identifying important measures to take forward and update this Master Plan.
- Over the past several decades, countless problems have come in the way of building infrastructure in India. There was a severe lack of coordination between the various departments.
- For example, once a road was built, other agencies would re-dug the constructed road for activities such as laying underground cables, gas pipelines, etc. Not only did this cause great inconvenience to the people, but it was also a wasteful expenditure.
- This problem. Concerted efforts were made to enhance coordination for the solution of the problem so that all cables, pipelines, etc. can be laid at the same time.
- Several concrete steps have also been taken to address the problems of approval process, time consuming, various regulatory clearances, etc. In the last seven years, the government has ensured unprecedented focus on infrastructure through a holistic approach.
GS PAPER II
G20 special summit on Afghanistan
Why in News
- Prime Minister virtually participated in the first G20 Special Summit on Afghanistan.
- The meeting was convened by Italy, which currently holds the presidency of the G20, and the summit was chaired by the Italian Prime Minister, Mr. Mario Draghi.
- The issues discussed in this meeting were related to the current humanitarian situation in Afghanistan, terrorism concerns and the human rights situation there.
- In his remarks, the Prime Minister welcomed the initiative of the Italian G20 Presidency to convene a meeting to take stock of the current situation in Afghanistan.
- He referred to the centuries-old people-to-people ties between India and Afghanistan.
- The Prime Minister mentioned that over the past two decades, India has contributed to promoting the socio-economic development and capacity building of youth and women in Afghanistan.
- India has implemented more than 500 development projects in Afghanistan.
- The Prime Minister said that the Afghan people have a feeling of friendship towards India. He said that every Indian feels the pain of the Afghan people facing hunger and malnutrition.
- He called on the international community to ensure that Afghanistan has immediate and unhindered access to humanitarian aid.
- The Prime Minister also underscored the need to ensure that the Afghan region does not become a source of radicalization and terrorism at the regional or global level.
- They stressed the need to further advance our joint fight against the nexus of radicalization, terrorism and drug and arms trafficking in the region.
- The Prime Minister called for an inclusive administration in Afghanistan, including women and minorities, to preserve the socio-economic progress achieved over the past 20 years and prevent the spread of radical ideology.
- They expressed their support for the important role of the United Nations in Afghanistan and called for the G20’s renewed support for the message contained in UN Security Council Resolution 2593 on Afghanistan.
- The Prime Minister called on the international community to build a cohesive international response, without which it would be very difficult to bring about the desired change in the current situation in Afghanistan.
GS PAPER II
Swachh Bharat Mission (Urban)
Why in News
- The Union Cabinet chaired by Prime Minister has emphasized the outcomes of Open Defecation Free (ODF), the introduction of scientific processing of solid waste in all cities and cities with a population of less than 1 lakh in Census 2011 (cities which have been declared as Atal Bihari Vajpayee). It has approved the continuation of the Swachh Bharat Mission (Urban) till 2025-26, with emphasis on the management of wastewater in the Mission for Renewal and Urban Transformation (AMRUT).
Financial Outlay of SBM-Urban 2.0:
- For the period 2021-22 to 2025-26, a total financial outlay of Rs 1,41,600 crore has been fixed for SBM-U 2.0 with a central share of Rs 36,465 crore, up from Rs 62,009 crore in the previous phase of the mission. 2.5 times more than the financial outlay of Rs.
Fund sharing between the Center and the States
- In cities with a population of more than one million: 25:75
- In cities with population up to 1-10 lakhs: 33:67
- In cities with population less than one lakh: 50:50
- Union Territories without Legislative Assembly: 100:0
- In Union Territories with Legislative Assembly: 80:20
- To make all statutory cities at least ODF plus.
- Making cities with population less than 1 lakh ODF plus plus.
- Implementing systems and procedures to ensure that all types of wastewater are treated safely and optimally and water sources are not polluted by any type of untreated wastewater.
Solid waste management
- All cities should have at least 3-star garbage-free certification.
Swachh Bharat Mission- Urban 2.0
- Over the next 5 years, the main thrust of SBM-U 2.0, launched by the Hon’ble Prime Minister on 1 October 2021, will be to sustain and accelerate the achieved sanitation and solid waste management outcomes, thereby making the mission “Garbage Free”. To achieve the goal of urban India.
- Implementation of various parts of the mission will be done in a systematic and time bound manner, including analysis of required infrastructure, 5-year detailed action plan and annual action plans with timelines.
- The mission will be paperless, digital and through GIS marked waste management infrastructure, robust user interface, online grievance redressal system, online monitoring of project from project creation to fund release and monitoring of project progress on integrated GIS based platform Digital technology will be used for complete transparency and reliability.
- Consolidation of 15th Finance Commission grants for outcome based fund release, more financial support and additional financial support to small ULBs, systematic implementation for every part, strong capacity building, dialogue and advocacy for continuous change in behavior, private sector Increasing participation of CSIR and more industry participation will help in achieving the mission goals within the stipulated timelines.
Key parts under Swachh Bharat Mission- Urban 2.0
The key components for implementation under SBM-U 2.0 will be:
Regular Sanitation :
- The mission will focus on ensuring full access to sanitation services during the next 5 years, serving the additional population moving from rural to urban areas in search of employment and better opportunities. This will be done through the construction of 3.5 lakh individual, community and public toilets.
- A new part introduced under SBM-Urban – Complete liquid waste management in cities with population of less than 1 lakh will ensure the establishment of systems and processes in each city, so that all waste water is safely captured, stored, disposed of. transport and treatment, as well as any kind of wastewater will not be able to pollute our water sources.
Sustainable Solid Waste Management:
- 100% source segregation of waste with Functional Material Recovery Facility (MRF), focusing on phasing out single-use plastic in each city,
- Establishment of construction and demolition (C&D) waste processing facilities and deployment of mechanical sweepers in National Clean Air Program (NCAP) cities and cities with population of more than 5 lakhs,
- Renovation of all old dump sites to free 14,000 acres of land covered by 150 million tonnes of old waste.
- Under the visionary leadership of the Prime Minister, in 2014, India took a holistic approach to urban planning and embarked on a journey towards reforms in the areas of water and sanitation.
- The Prime Minister announced the launch of the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan (SBM) on 15 August 2014, which was formally launched on 2 October 2014, with the following objectives:
- Elimination of open defecation in all statutory towns.
- 100% scientific management of municipal solid waste in all statutory towns.
- To bring about behavioral change through mass movement.
GS PAPER II
Atal Mission – AMRUT 2.0
Why in News
- The Union Cabinet chaired by the Prime Minister has approved the Atal Mission for Renewal and Urban Transformation (AMRUT 2.0) by 2025-26 as a step towards self-reliant India and making cities ‘water safe’ and ‘water safe’ through a circular economy of water. Approved with the aim of making ‘self-reliant’.
- The Cabinet believes that providing reliable and affordable water supply and sanitation services to urban households is a national priority.
- This will be achieved by providing running tap connections to all households, water source conservation/enhancement, rejuvenation of water bodies and wells, recycling/reusing treated water and rainwater harvesting.
- This project will bring ease of living of urban households by providing piped water supply and sewerage/septage facilities.
- Mission will be monitored on a robust technology based portal. Geo-tagging of projects will be done. Efforts will be made to make it a paperless mission.
- Cities will assess their water sources, consumption, future requirement and water loss through water balance plan.
- Based on this a city water action plan will be prepared which will be presented as a State Water Action Plan and approved by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs.
- Funding for the projects will be shared by Centre, State and Urban Local Bodies (ULBs). Central funds to the States will be released in three phases based on the State’s allocation as per the State Water Action Plan.
- Other key features of AMRUT 2.0 (U) include drinking water survey which will encourage competition among cities for benchmarking urban water services.
- The mission will also encourage mobilization of market finance by mandating 10 per cent implementation of projects through public private partnership in cities with a population of more than one million.
- The mission will also utilize the world’s leading technologies in the water sector through the Technology Sub-Mission. Entrepreneurs/start-ups will be encouraged in the water ecosystem.
- Information Education and Communication (IEC) campaign will be launched to spread awareness among people about water conservation.
- The mission has a reform agenda that focuses on the financial health and water security of urban local bodies. Meeting 20 per cent of water demand through recycled water, bringing down non-revenue water to less than 20 per cent and rejuvenating water bodies are major water reforms.
- Reforms in property tax, user charges and enhancing creditworthiness of urban local bodies are other important reforms. Urban local bodies will be rewarded with incentives on completing the reforms.
- Atal Mission for Renewal and Urban Transformation, the country’s first focused National Water Mission was launched in June 2015 to bring ease of living by providing tap connections and sewer connections to citizens in 500 cities.
- So far 1.1 crore domestic tap connections and 85 lakh sewer/septage connections have been given.
- 6,000 MLD sewage treatment capacity is being developed, out of which 1,210 MLD capacity has already been created, with provision for reuse of 907 MLD treated sewage.
- 1,820 gardens covering an area of 3,600 acres have been developed, while another 1,800 acres is green. So far 1,700 flood points have been eliminated.
- Continuing the remarkable efforts made under AMRUT, AMRUT 2.0 aims at universal coverage of water supply by providing household tap connections in all 4,378 statutory cities.
- 100% coverage of domestic sewerage/septage management in 500 AMRUT cities is another objective.
- The mission aims to provide 2.68 crore tap connections and 2.64 crore sewer/septage connections to achieve the desired results.
- The total notional outlay for AMRUT 2.0 is Rs 2,77,000 crore which includes the central share of Rs 76,760 crore for five years from FY 2021-22 to FY 2025-26.
GS PAPER III
‘COVAXIN’ for children
- Why in News
- The Drugs Controller General of India (DCGI) has approved the emergency use of Bharat Biotech’s COVAXIN on children aged 2 years to 18 years.
- This is the first vaccine to be approved for children in India. Guidelines related to the vaccination of children will be issued soon by the Government of India.
- COVAXIN has been developed jointly by Bharat Biotech and the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR). The vaccine has been found to be 78 percent effective in the trial.
- Vaccine campaign for children between 2 years to 18 years will be started soon after getting approval from the Drugs Controller General of India (DCGI). Children will be given two doses of COVAXIN.
- Many countries including India are working on Corona Vaccine for children.
- America is the first country, where the anti-corona vaccine was started to be given to people under the age of 18. Some experts believed that if the third wave of coronavirus infection comes in India, then the children are most affected in it. Will be
- In such a situation, the need for the corona vaccine was being felt for children. Now after the arrival of the vaccine, children will also be able to fight this deadly virus.
- Earlier in India, Zydus Cadila’s corona vaccine ZyCoV-D was approved by DCGI for emergency use.
- This vaccine can be applied to 12-year-old children, adolescents and adults. This was not the world’s first DNA-based vaccine made in India.
Vaccine campaign launched in India
- Vaccine campaign in India was started on 16 January and till now people above 18 years of age are being vaccinated.
- According to the data of the Union Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, so far 95 crore 89 lakh 78 thousand 49 doses of Corona Vaccine have been given across the country.
- Presently in India, Covishield, COVAXIN, and Sputnik-V Vaccine are being given not only to adults.