GS PAPER – II NEWS
Why in News
Recently, the Supreme Court stated that people at free to choose their religion.
- The judge of the Supreme Court reminded about the Fundamental Right under Article 25 of the Constitution to freely profess, practice and propagate religion subject to public order, morality and health.
- The Supreme Court also mentioned that every person is the final judge of his/her choice of religion or who their life partner should be.
- Religious faith is a part of the fundamental right to privacy.
- The petition alleged that the court should direct the Centre and the States to control black magic, superstition and religious conversion being done through threats, intimidation or bribes.
- The petition also alleged that there are no single states in our country that are free of black magic, superstitions and religious conversion. Incidents are reported every week throughout the country where conversion is done by intimidating, threatening, luring through gifts and monetary benefits.
- Fundamental rights are the collection of rights that is essential for the existence and all-around development of individuals.
- It enshrined in Part III (Articles 14 to 32) of the Constitution of India.
- It includes individual common rights such as equality before the law, freedom of speech and freedom of expression, religious and cultural freedom, Freedom of assembly (peaceful assembly), freedom of religion (freedom to practice religion), right to constitutional remedies for the protection of civil rights using writs such as Habeas Corpus, Mandamus, Writ of Prohibition, Certiorari and Quo Warranto.
- it applies universally to all citizens, irrespective of race, birthplace, religion, caste, sexual orientation, gender or gender identity.
- There are six fundamental rights recognised by the Indian constitution:
- Right to equality (Articles. 14-18)
- Right to Freedom (Articles. 19-22)
- Right Against Exploitation (Articles. 23-24)
- Right to Freedom of Religion (Articles. 25-28)
- Cultural and Educational Rights (Articles. 29-30), and
- Right to Constitutional Remedies (Articles. 32)
GS PAPER – II
India-Netherland Virtual Summit
Why in News
On 9th April 2021, India and Netherland held a Virtual Summit.
- During the Summit, the two nations had a detailed review of the entire spectrum of bilateral engagements.
- They exchanged views on expanding and diversifying the relationship in trade and economy, water management, agriculture sector, smart cities, science & technology, healthcare and space.
- The two nations also agreed on instituting a ‘Strategic Partnership on Water’ to further deepen the Indo-Dutch cooperation in the water-related sector and upgrading the Joint Working Group on the water to Ministerial-level.
- They exchanged perspectives on regional and global challenges such as climate change, counter-terrorism and the Covid-19 pandemic.
- They agreed to leverage the emerging convergences in new areas like Indo-Pacific, Resilient Supply Chains and Global Digital Governance.
- India thanked the Netherlands for their support to International Solar Alliance (ISA) and Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure (CDRI).
- India also welcomed the Netherlands’ Indo-Pacific Policy and its desire to collaborate during India’s G20 Presidency in 2023.
- India and the Netherlands have a strong and steady relationship.
- Both nations stabilized diplomatic relations in 1947.
- The Netherlands is the hub to the largest Indian diaspora in Europe.
- It facilitated by the shared values of democracy, rule of law and respect for human rights and the historic bonds of friendship between the two countries.
- Both nations sharing wide relations in various areas including healthcare, agriculture and food processing, water management, science & technology, smart cities and urban mobility, renewable energy and space.
- They also share robust economic cooperation with the Netherlands being the third-largest investor in India.
Historical Relation between India and Netherland
- In the early 17th-century Dutch entered the Mughal Empire for trading purposes.
- They ruled on the Indian subcontinent from 1605 to 1825.
- They had taken over Ceylon from the Portuguese in 1656 and they took the Portuguese forts on the Malabar coast about five years later to secure Ceylon from Portuguese invasion.
- They also traded precious stones, indigo, opium, pepper and silk across India
Economic Relation between India and Netherland
- The Netherlands is one of the top 10 trade partners of India in terms of trade volume.
- The Netherlands is one of the largest investors in Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) into India.
- There are 200 Dutch companies in India and 174 Indian Companies in the Netherlands.
GS PAPER – III
Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board of India
Why in News
On 9th April 2021, the Pre-packaged Insolvency Resolution Process Regulations, 2021 (PPIRP Regulations) under the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board of India are came into operation.
- The Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code (Amendment) Ordinance, 2021 promulgated on 4th April 2021 provides for a Pre-Packaged Insolvency Resolution Process (PPIRP) for corporate debtors categorized in Micro, Small and Medium enterprises.
- The provisions under Pre-packaged Insolvency Resolution Process Regulations, 2021 (PPIRP Regulations) are:-
- Eligibility to act as resolution professional, and his terms of appointment;
- Eligibility of registered valuers and other professionals;
- Identification and selection of authorised representative;
- Public announcement and claims of stakeholders;
- Information memorandum;
- Meetings of the creditors and committee of creditors;
- Invitation for resolution plans;
- Competition between the base resolution plan and the best resolution plan;
- Evaluation and consideration of resolution plans;
- Vesting management of corporate debtor with resolution professional;
- Termination of PPIRP
Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board of India (IBBI)
- The Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board of India was established on 1st October 2016 under the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, 2016 (Code).
- The IBBI is responsible for the implementation of the Code that consolidates and modifies the laws relating to reorganization and insolvency resolution of corporate persons, partnership firms and individuals in a time-bound manner for maximization of the value of assets of such persons, to promote entrepreneurship, availability of credit and balance the interests of all the stakeholders.
- It has regulatory oversight over the Insolvency Professionals, Insolvency Professional Agencies, Insolvency Professional Entities and Information Utilities.
- Also it designated as the ‘Authority under the Companies (Registered Valuers and Valuation Rules), 2017 for regulation and development of the profession of valuers in the country.
Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises Development Act, 2006
- It is the Act of the Parliament of India.
- According to the act, any buyer who fails to make payment to MSMEs up to 45 days, would be able to pay monthly compounded interest at three times the bank rate notified by RBI.
- Under this, industries are divided into two category:- Manufacturing and Services.
- Further industries divide into Micro, Small and Medium.
- For MICRO Industries: Capital Requirements are under 25 lakh Rupees.
- For SMALL industries: Capital Requirements are from Rs 25-500 lakhs.
- For Medium Enterprises: Capital Requirements are from Rs 500-1000 lakhs.
GS PAPER – III
Why in News
A two-day convention on ‘Homoeopathy – Roadmap for Integrative Medicine’ is inaugurated on 10th April 2021 in New Delhi.
- The Convention was organized by the Central Council for Research in Homoeopathy (CCRH).
- This connection emphasized the contribution of Homeopathy in controlling epidemics.
- The Ministry of AYUSH fervently invited research proposals from AYUSH systems of medicine which had an overwhelming response from the Homoeopathy fraternity few of which got a nod from the task force committee and Indian Council for Medical Research (ICMR).
- The objective of the Homeopathic Convention is to exchange the experience between policymakers and experts and will enrich researchers, clinicians and educationists in the field of Homoeopathy.
- E-library of Central Council for Research in Homoeopathy (CCRH) was also launched on the occasion.
Central Council for Research in Homoeopathy (CCRH)
- The Central Council for Research in Homoeopathy (CCRH), an autonomous apex research organization under the Ministry of AYUSH to celebrate the occasion of World Homoeopathy Day.
- The Homoeopathic Clinical Case Repository (HCCR) portal is a unique digital initiative of CCRH launched by the Union Ministry of AYUSH.
- The HHCR aimed at providing homoeopathic clinicians, researchers, medical students etc. a user platform for entering homoeopathic clinical cases through a predefined standardized template.
- The Headquarters of the Council is situated in New Delhi and multi-centric research is conducted through a network of 26 institutes/units all over India.
.GS PAPER – II
BRICS International Forum
Why in News
A webinar organized by BRICS International Forum, a civil organization, in which India highlighted the role of the BRICS Nation in resolving common problems like lack of access to safe drinking water.
- Cape Town, South Africa became the first major city to have run out of water in the year 2017-18.
- In Brazil, around 3 million population still lack access to safe drinking water.
- Russia on the other hand has 1/4th of the world’s fresh surface and groundwater resources and provides 248 lpcd water to its residents for domestic use.
- Indian Union Minister of State for Jal Shakti emphasized upon learning from each other’s valuable experience in handling the water crisis as 2.2 billion people across the globe still struggle to have access to safe drinking water (WHO).
- In August 2019 Indian launched an ambitious Scheme Jal Jeevan Mission (Water is life) to cover all rural households with piped water supply by the year 2024.
Jal Jeevan Mission
- In 2019, Jal Jeevan Mission, a central government initiative under the Ministry of Jal Shakti was launched.
- It aims to ensure access to piped water for every household in India.
- The mission’s goal is to provide to all households in rural India safe and adequate water through individual household tap connections by 2024.
- The broad objectives of the Mission are:
- To provide FHTC to every rural household.
- To prioritize the provision of FHTCs in quality affected areas, villages in drought-prone and desert areas, Sansad Adarsh Gram Yojana (SAGY) villages, etc.
- To provide functional tap connection to Schools, Anganwadi centres, GP buildings, Health centres, wellness centres and community buildings
- To monitor the functionality of tap connections.
- To promote and ensure voluntary ownership among the local community by way of contribution in cash, kind and/ or labour and voluntary labour (shramdaan)
- To assist in ensuring the sustainability of the water supply system, i.e. water source, water supply infrastructure, and funds for regular O&M
- To empower and develop human resource in the sector such that the demands of construction, plumbing, electrical, water quality management, water treatment, catchment protection, O&M, etc. are taken care of in short and long term
- To bring awareness on various aspects and significance of safe drinking water and involvement of stakeholders in a manner that makes water everyone’s business.
- BRICS is the acronym coined to associate five major emerging economies: Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa.
- This group was formed in 2009.
- Originally the first four were grouped as “BRIC” (or “the BRICs”) before the induction of South Africa in 2010.
- They are known for their significant influence on regional affairs.
- Russia hosted the most recent 12th BRICS summit on 17 November 2020 virtually due to the COVID-19 pandemic.
- The BRIC grouping’s 1st formal summit, also held in Yekaterinburg, commenced on 16 June 2009.