Daily Current Affairs for 09th July 2022

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G 20

GS Paper 2: Important International Institutions, agencies and fora – their Structure, Mandate.
Important For:
Prelims exam level: G20
Mains exam level: India and G20

Why in News

External Affairs Minister S Jaishankar met Chinese Foreign Minister and State Councillor Wang Yi on Thursday (July 7) at the G20 Foreign Ministers Meeting. On the side-lines of the two-day meeting that concluded on July 8 in Bali, Indonesia, the two ministers discussed border issues.

Upcoming summit

The 17th G20 Heads of State and Government Summit will happen in November in Bali.
What is the G20?

What is the G20?

• The G20 or Group of Twenty is an intergovernmental forum comprising 19 countries and the European Union (EU).
• It works to address major issues related to the global economy, such as international financial stability, climate change mitigation, and sustainable development.
• The G20 was formed in 1999 in the backdrop of the financial crisis of the late 1990s that hit East Asia and Southeast Asia in particular.

Significance of G20

• Together, the G20 countries include 60 per cent of the world’s population, 80 per cent of global GDP, and 75 per cent of global trade.
• Its prominent members are: Australia, Brazil, China, France, Germany, India, Japan, Republic of Korea, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Turkey, the UK, the US, and the EU.
• Spain is invited as a permanent guest.
• The presidency of the G20 rotates every year among members, and the country holding the presidency, together with the previous and next presidency-holder, forms the ‘Troika’ to ensure continuity of the G20 agenda.
• Italy, Indonesia, and India are the Troika countries right now.
• After Indonesia, India will assume the presidency of G20 from December 2022.
The G20 has no permanent secretariat.

How does the G20 work?

• The agenda and work are coordinated by representatives of the G20 countries, known as ‘Sherpas’, who work together with the finance ministers and governors of the central banks.
• India recently said ex-NITI Aayog CEO Amitabh Kant would be the G20 Sherpa after Piyush Goyal.
• The first G20 Summit took place in 2008 in Washington DC, US.
• In addition to Summits, the Sherpa meetings (that help in negotiations and building consensus), and other events are also organised throughout the year.
• Each year, the presidency invites guest countries.

Importance of G20 for India

• G20 could help in dealing with pandemic-related health and economic issues.
o To strengthen national health systems, the G20 has also set up a Joint Finance and Health Task Force.
o The One Health approach proposed by the summit is very close to ‘One Earth, One Health’ vision outlined by our Prime Minister.
• Apart from health and economy, it could help in issues like Climate Change and sustainability.
• It could provide a good opportunity for a green transition.
• Sustainable development could be achieved through collective action by G20 members.

India-Japan ties under Shinjo Abe

GS Paper 2: Important International Institutions, agencies and fora – their Structure, Mandate.
Important For:
Prelims exam level: G20
Mains exam level: India-Japan ties
Why in News

Former Japanese Prime Minister Shinjo Abe was shot dead.

Japan under Abe

• Abe was one of the most consequential leaders of Japan in its post-war history.
• He was Japan’s longest serving Prime Minister.

Abe and India

• During his time in office, Abe was a great friend of India — a relationship that he invested personally in.
• His Visits:
o During his first stint in 2006-07, Abe visited India and addressed Parliament.
o During his second stint, he visited India thrice
o No other Prime Minister of Japan has made so many visits to India.
o Abe was the first Japanese PM to be chief guest at the Republic Day parade in 2014.
• Bilateral ties:
o While the foundation for a “Global Partnership between Japan and India” was laid in 2001, and annual bilateral summits were agreed upon in 2005, Abe accelerated the pace of ties since 2012.
• Laying the concept of Indo-Pacific:
o In August 2007, when Abe visited India for the first time as PM, he delivered the now-famous “Confluence of the Two Seas” speech – laying the foundation for his concept of Indo-Pacific and the Quad was formed.
o This concept has now become mainstream and one of the main pillars of India-Japan ties.
• Nuclear Deal:
o The Indo-Japan nuclear deal was still uncertain then, with Tokyo sensitive about a pact with a non-member country of the Nuclear Proliferation Treaty. Abe’s government convinced the anti-nuclear hawks in Japan to sign the agreement in 2016.
o The pact was key to India’s deals with the US and French nuclear firms, which were either owned by or had stakes in Japanese firms.

Strategic and Global Partnership:

o India and Japan agreed to upgrade the bilateral relationship to a “Special Strategic and Global Partnership” – a relationship which encompassed issues from civilian nuclear energy to maritime security, bullet trains to quality infrastructure, Act East policy to Indo-Pacific strategy.
• Meeting (2+2):
o While the security agreement was in place since 2008, under Abe, the two sides decided to have a foreign and defence ministers‘ meeting (2+2), and started negotiations on the Acquisition and Cross-Servicing Agreement — a military logistics support pact.
o In November 2019, the first foreign and defence ministers’ meeting was held in New Delhi. A pact for transfer of defence equipment and technology was also signed in 2015, an uncommon agreement for post-War Japan.
• China factor:
o In October 2017, as Chinese aggression grew in the Pacific, Indian Ocean, and India’s borders in Doklam.
o Since 2013, Indian and Chinese soldiers have had four publicly-known border standoffs, and Abe stood with India through each of them. During the Doklam crisis and the current standoff, Japan made statements against China for changing the status quo.
o The two countries also planned joint projects in Maldives and Sri Lanka among others to counter Beijing’s influence.
• Revival of QUAD:
o It was Abe’s Japan that mooted the idea of reviving the Quad. In November 2017, the grouping was revived as Indian, Japanese, Australia and US officials met in Manila on the side-lines of the East Asia summit.
• The Bullet train project:
o During Abe’s visit in 2015, India decided to introduce the Shinkansen system (bullet train).
• Formation of Act East forum:
o Under Abe’s leadership, India and Japan also formed the Act East Forum and are engaged in projects in the Northeast, closely

watched by China.

• Access to G7:
o Abe was a valuable G-7 leader for India, focused on strategic, economic and political deliverables, and not getting distracted by India’s domestic developments – much to New Delhi’s comfort.
Autonomous District Council (ADC)
GS Paper 2: Parliament and State Legislatures—Structure, Functioning, Conduct of Business, Powers & Privileges and Issues Arising out of these.
Important For:
Prelims exam level: Local Self-Government (ADC)
Mains exam level: Not Much
Why in News
The Khasi Hills Autonomous District Council (KHADC) in Meghalaya has called for a meeting of traditional heads to revisit the Instrument of Accession that made the Khasi domain a part of the Indian Union
About Autonomous District Council
• The Sixth Schedule of the Indian Constitution allows for the formation of autonomous administrative divisions which have been given autonomy within their respective states.
• Most of these ADC are located in North East India with the exception of two in Ladakh and one in West Bengal.
• Presently, 10 Autonomous Councils in Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram and Tripura are formed by virtue of the Sixth Schedule with the rest being formed as a result of other legislations.
Powers and competencies
1. Executive and legislative powers

Under the provisions of the Sixth Schedule, ADCs can make laws, rules and regulations in the following areas:

• Land management
• Forest management
• Water resources
• Agriculture and cultivation
• Formation of village councils
• Public health
• Sanitation
• Village and town level policing
• Appointment of traditional chiefs and headmen
• Inheritance of property
• Marriage and divorce
• Social customs
• Money lending and trading
• Mining and minerals
2. Judicial powers
• ADCs have powers to form courts.
• They can hear cases where both parties are members of Scheduled Tribes (STs) and the maximum sentence is less than 5 years in prison.
3. Taxation and revenue
• Autonomous district councils have powers to levy taxes, fees and tolls on: building and land, animals, vehicles, boats, entry of goods into the area, roads, ferries, bridges, employment and income and general taxes for the maintenance of schools and roads.

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