Daily Current Affairs for 06th Sep 2023

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Vaccine Diplomacy: Domination of Non-Western Countries

Why in the news?

Recently, a research paper argued that during the COVID-19 pandemic, for the first time in history, three non-Western powers — Russia, China and India — dominated international vaccine diplomacy.

What is Vaccine Diplomacy?

  • Vaccine diplomacy is the use of vaccines as a foreign policy tool to achieve political, economic, or strategic objectives.
  • It can involve donating or selling vaccines to other countries, providing technical assistance for vaccine development or manufacturing, or supporting vaccine research.

Highlights of the Study:

Russia: Used its Sputnik-V vaccine to strengthen its ties with its allies and expand its influence in the developing world.

  • Sold vaccines to both wealthy and developing countries.
  • Relied on outsourcing vaccine production with technology transfer.
  • Targeted its vaccine diplomacy to its sphere of influence, including the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) and the Balkan nations.

India: Used its large vaccine manufacturing capacity to donate vaccines to its neighbours and other developing countries, while also selling vaccines to wealthy countries.

    • Followed a “neighbourhood first” policy, with a preference for countries with sizeable populations of the Indian diaspora.
    • Balanced geopolitical interests and financial reality by carefully deciding how many vaccines to donate and/or sell and to which countries.
    • Indian vaccine diplomacy was hampered by the second wave of COVID-19, which hit India in early April 2021, forcing India to ban all vaccine exports.


    • Invested heavily in vaccine development, production, and distribution.
    • Provided preferential access to African and ASEAN countries, which are focus areas of the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI).
    • Used its vaccine diplomacy to promote its Belt and Road Initiative and to counter India’s influence in the developing world.


The vaccine diplomacy of Russia, India, and China has had a significant impact on the global health landscape. It has helped to increase access to vaccines in the developing world and has also contributed to the geopolitical rivalry between these three countries.



Ecocide: A Crime against Nature

Why in news?

Recently, according to reports, there is a growing movement to criminalize Ecocide.

  • In 2021, a panel of lawyers drafted a definition of ecocide that could be added to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (ICC). The definition includes acts that cause “severe and either widespread or long-term damage to the environment”.

What is Ecocide?

  • Ecocide is the deliberate destruction of the environment. The term was first coined in the 1970s by the biologist Arthur Galston, who argued that it should be recognized as a crime against humanity.
  • Ecocide is not currently recognized as an international crime.

Need For Recognising Ecocide:

  • It could help to deter environmental destruction.
  • Criminalizing ecocide could help to hold perpetrators accountable.
  • Criminalizing ecocide could help to provide justice for victims.

What are the Challenges to Criminalizing Ecocide?

  • One challenge is the country’s complex legal system. The Indian Penal Code does not currently include a provision for ecocide. This would need to be changed before ecocide could be criminalized.
  • Another challenge is the lack of political will. Some politicians are reluctant to criminalize ecocide, fearing that it would discourage investment and economic growth.


Despite the challenges, there is a strong case for criminalizing ecocide. The environmental challenges that we face today are too great to ignore. We need to take all necessary measures to protect our planet, and criminalizing ecocide would be a significant step in the right direction.



National Teachers’ Award 2023

Why in news?

Recently, the Prime Minister of India interacted with the winners of the National Teachers’ Award 2023 on the eve of Teachers’ Day.

About the National Teacher’s Day Awards:

  • The National Teachers’ Award is a prestigious award given by the Government of India to honour teachers who have made significant contributions to the field of education.
  • The award was instituted in 1955 and is given every year on Teachers’ Day, which is celebrated on 5th September.

The National Teachers’ Award is given in four categories:

  • Primary School Teacher
  • Secondary School Teacher
  • Teacher of Higher Education
  • Teacher of Special Education
  • The awardees are selected by a committee of eminent educationists. The selection criteria include teaching experience, academic achievements, and contributions to the field of education.
  • The awardees receive a silver medal, a certificate, and a cash prize of Rs. 50,000.

About Teachers’ Day:

  • Teachers’ Day is celebrated in India on 5th September every year to honour the contributions of teachers. The day is also a tribute to Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, who was born on this day.
  • In 1952, Dr. Radhakrishnan was elected as the first Vice-President of India. He served in this position till 1962, when he was elected as the second President of India.
  • Dr. Radhakrishnan was awarded the Bharat Ratna, India’s highest civilian award, in 1954. He died on 17th April, 1975.


The National Teachers’ Award is a fitting tribute to Dr. Radhakrishnan and his contributions to the field of education. The awardees are an inspiration to all teachers and a reminder of the important role they play in society.



Gujarat Declaration on Health: WHO

Why in news?

The “Gujarat Declaration,” the final report of the inaugural WHO Traditional Medicine Global Conference 2023, has been made public by the World Health Organization (WHO).

About the Gujarat Declaration:

  • Gujarat, India, served as the site of the first WHO Global Traditional Medicine Center.
  • The declaration reiterated international commitments to traditional, alternative, and integrative medicine, biodiversity, and indigenous knowledge.
  • The Sustainable Development Goals for Health and the Gujarat Declaration both seek to enhance evidence-based traditional medicine interventions (SDGs).
  • It demands the collection of uniform data and documentation regarding conventional medicine.

The summit looked at how AI and other digital health technologies fit into conventional medicine.

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