Daily Current Affairs for 06rd September 2022

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O GS Paper 1: Important movements after 1947
Important for:
O Prelims exam: Hyderabad Liberation Day, operation Polo
Why in news
“Hyderabad Liberation Day” will be celebrated from 17th September 2022 to 17th September 2023.
Objective of this
The objective is to raise awareness of the story of resistance, valour, and sacrifice among the current generation, both
in the region under consideration and across India.

History after partition

O When the British left India in 1947, they gave the princely states the option of joining India or Pakistan or remaining
O Out of the 565 princely states that existed at the time, 562 decided to join India.
P However, neither did Hyderabad, Junagadh, nor Kashmir, three princely states, integrate into India or demonstrate any interest in doing so.

Operation Polo

O The state of Hyderabad was under the
Nizam which included the whole of currentday Telangana, the Marathwada region
in Maharashtra and Bidar in current-day
Karnataka, all of which had a largely Hindu
O The Nizam of Hyderabad hoped to retain his
sovereignty and opposed the idea of merging
with India after Independence. Osman Ali Khan
Asaf Jah VII, the last Nizam of the princely state
of Hyderabad, was asked to join India in 1947
but declined.

On August 15, 1947, Nizam proclaimed
Hyderabad a sovereign state and this added to
the tension and led to communal clashes.
O India did not want Hyderabad to remain free, fearing that it would lead to the country’s balkanization.
O The then Home Minister Sardar Patel referred to the concept of an independent Hyderabad as “an ulcer in the
heart of India which needed to be removed surgically.”
O Under “Operation Polo” Indian forces entered Hyderabad.
P In a five-day battle, the Indian Army took Hyderabad and fully integrated it into Indian territory by decisively
defeating Nizam.


O GS Paper 2: Indian Constitution, Features of Indian Constitution
Important for:
O Prelims exam: Provision related to Preventive detention
O Mains exam: Democracy and Preventive detention

Why in news

According to data released by the National Crime Records
Bureau (NCRB), Preventive detentions in 2021 saw a rise
by over 23.7% compared with the year before, with over
1.1 lakh people being placed under preventive detention.

Meaning of Preventive detention

Preventive detention refers to taking into custody an
individual who has not committed a crime yet but the
authorities believe him to be a threat to law and order.
Provision related to Preventive detention
O Section 151 of the Code of Criminal Procedure:
it says that the police are empowered to make
preventive arrests if they believe they must do so to
prevent the commission of “any cognisable offence”.
This detention can be extended beyond 24 hours if required “under any other provisions of this Code or of any
other law”.
O Article 22 of Indian constitutions

Article 22(3) provides that if the person who has been arrested or detained under preventive detention
laws then the protection against arrest and detention provided under article 22(1) and 22(2) shall not be
available to that person.
P No law providing for preventive detention shall authorise the detention of a person for a longer period than
three months unless an Advisory Board consisting of persons who are, or have been, or are qualified to be
appointed as, Judges of a High Court has reported before the expiration of the said period of three months
that there is in its opinion sufficient cause for such detention:
Q But If such disclosure is against the public interest then they can deny

Supreme court judgements

O AK Gopalan v. State of Madras: Court upheld the validity of the Preventive Detention Act. Moreover, the Court
also held that Article 22 of the Constitution also provides exhaustive procedural safeguards with respect to
preventive detention.
O Kharak Singh V. State of UP: Court stated that personal liberty was not only limited to bodily restraint or
enforcement. The court laid down that an unauthorised intrusion into a person’s home and disturbance caused
to him thereby violated his right to personal liberty enshrined in Article 21.
O Ram Manohar Lohia v. State of Bihar: The Supreme Court attempted to distinguish between the concepts
“security of state,” “public order,” and “law and order.” The Court concluded that acts affecting only “law and order”
without one of the other two categories cannot be a sufficient justification on which to base a detention order

Issues related to Preventive Detention Law

O Use of detention laws for political benefits.
O Arbitrary detention is also against the spirit of the constitution.
O No democratic country in the world has made preventive detention an integral part of the Constitution, even
Britain abolished provisions related to detention.
GS Paper 2: Government policies and interventions
Important for:
O Prelims exam: Provision of PM SHRI
O Mains exam: Reform in education system

Why in news

The Prime Minister on teacher’s day announced that under a new centrally sponsored scheme, named PM SHRI,
14,500 schools will be “upgraded” across India to showcase the components of the National Education Policy, 2020.

About PM SHRI Scheme

O Pradhan Mantri Schools For Rising India (PM-SHRI) Yojana is a centrally sponsored scheme, which aims to overhaul
the school education system in India.
O The PM-SHRI schools will have a modern, transformational and holistic method of imparting education.
O Scheme’s Emphasis will be on a discovery oriented, learning centric way of teaching.
O Focus of the scheme will be on modern infra including latest technology, smart classrooms, sports and more.
O These schools will become model schools which will encapsulate the full spirit of NEP.
O These schools will also “offer mentorship” to other schools in their vicinity.
O These schools will be developed as green schools with water conservation, waste recycling, energy-efficient
infrastructure and integration of organic lifestyle in curriculum.

Key features of NEP in school education

O The NEP divided school education in four stages(5+3+3+4) –
P Foundational- pre-school and grades I to II
Q It will involve play-based learning
P Preparatory- Class III to V
Q At this stage light textbooks are to be introduced along with some formal classroom teaching.
P Middle- Class VI- to VII
Q Subject teachers are to be introduced at this stage.
P Secondary- Class IX to XII
Q It will be multidisciplinary in nature with no hard separation between arts and sciences or other

Chanakya Daily Newspaper Analysis

How these school will be different from existing KVs and JNVs:

Kendriya Vidyalayas and Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalayas come entirely under the union government.
P They are fully-funded by the Union government under Central Sector Schemes.
P Ministry of education is the Nodal agency for these school
O While KVs largely cater to children of Union government employees posted in states and UTs, JNVs were set up
to nurture talented students in rural parts of the country
O PM SHRI schools will be an upgrade of existing schools run by the Centre, states, UTs and local bodies.
P This essentially means that PM SHRI schools can either be KVs, JNVs, state government schools or even those
run by municipal corporations.


O GS Paper 3: Developments in Science and Technology, Applications of scientific developments in everyday life

Important for:

O Prelims exam: Features of Intranasal Vaccine

Why in news

India’s first intranasal Covid vaccine by
Bharat Biotech received DCGI approval for
primary immunisation against the infection
for people above the age of 18.

How does the nasal vaccine works

O In the nasal approach, the vaccine dose
is given via nose, rather than orally or through the arm.
O As the target is to deliver a dose which goes right into the respiratory pathways, the vaccine is either given through
a specific nasal spray or through aerosol delivery.
O The virus normally enters the body through the nose, the nasal vaccine causes the immune system to make
proteins in the blood and in nose that helps fight the virus.
How is the nasal vaccine different
O Many microbes, including the coronavirus, enter the body through the mucosa, triggering a unique immune
response from cells and molecules there.
O Intramuscular vaccines generally do a poor job of eliciting this mucosal response and must instead rely on immune
cells mobilized from elsewhere in the body flocking to the site of infection.
P Intranasal vaccine stimulates a broad immune response neutralizing IgG, mucosal IgA, and T cell responses,
Which enables Immune responses at the site of infection (in the nasal mucosa) essential for blocking both
infection and transmission.
O The nasal vaccine targets immune cells present in the mucosal membrane and tissue- which provides systematic
as well as mucosal immunity present in other sites such as lungs and the intestines.
P Hence, a nasal vaccine may be more capable of inoculating crowds against the deadly infection and prevent even mild symptoms from developing.

Benefits of nasal vaccine

O An intranasal vaccine will be simple to administer
O It will reduce the use of medical consumables such as needles, syringes, etc., significantly impacting the overall
cost of a vaccination drive.
O It will help to eliminate needle-associated risks such as injuries and infections.
O It is easy to manufacture, hence India will be able to meet global demand for vaccines.[/fusion_text][/fusion_builder_column][/fusion_builder_row][/fusion_builder_container]

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