Quad virtual summit
Why in News
• The Prime Minister took part in a virtual summit of the top leadership of the Quod with US President Joe Biden, Prime Minister Scott Morrison of Australia and Prime Minister Fumio Kishida of Japan.
• The summit reviewed the progress made on the Quad initiatives since the Quad Summit held in September 2021.
• All the Heads of State agreed to enhance cooperation with the aim of achieving concrete results until the summit in Japan at the end of this year.
• Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi said that the Quod should focus on the main objective of promoting peace, stability and prosperity in the Indo-Pacific region.
• He called for a concrete and pragmatic form of internal cooperation in the Quad in areas such as humanitarian and disaster relief, credit affordability, supply chain, clean energy, connectivity and capacity-building.
• The situation in Ukraine was also discussed in the meeting, including the subject of humanitarian crisis. The Prime Minister stressed the need to return to the path of dialogue and diplomacy.
• All the Heads of State also discussed other key topics, including Southeast Asia, the Indian Ocean region and the situation in the Pacific Islands.
• Prime Minister Shri Modi reiterated the importance of following the United Nations Charter, international law, and respect for sovereignty and territorial integrity.
• All the Heads of State agreed to keep in touch and work on the ambitious agenda for the upcoming summit in Japan.
GS PAPER II
United Nations General Assembly
Why in News
• India did not participate in the voting on the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) resolution condemning the Russian attack on Ukraine on 02 March 2022.
• Russian military has intensified attacks on Ukraine. Meanwhile, voting took place in the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) on Ukraine and Russia.
• The resolution against Russia was passed by a majority in the United Nations General Assembly. The resolution was passed after a special emergency meeting.
• The United Nations General Assembly passed a resolution ‘demanding’ Russia to withdraw from Ukraine. UNGA passes resolution condemning Russia for attacking Ukraine.
• 141 countries voted against Russia during this voting. Five countries supported Russia. At the same time, 35 countries including India did not participate in the voting.
• Many countries, from the financially prosperous countries of Europe to the small Pacific island countries, have condemned Russia’s attack on Ukraine.
• India did not participate in the third UN resolution brought in less than a week in view of the escalating tensions between Ukraine and Russia.
• In his statement after voting on the resolution, Indian Ambassador to the United Nations TS Tirumurti said that India is deeply concerned about the rapidly deteriorating situation in Ukraine and the humanitarian crisis.
• India says that differences can be resolved only through dialogue and diplomacy. India said in the UN that India is concerned due to the deteriorating situation in Ukraine.
• Declaration of special military operation
• 11 such emergency special sessions have been called since the 1950s of the General Assembly. This special session was also called after almost 40 years.
• Condemning Russia’s announcement of a special military operation in Ukraine on 24 February 2022, the resolution demanded that Russia immediately, completely and unconditionally withdraw from the territory of Ukraine all its military within its internationally recognized borders.
GS PAPER III
Defense acquisition process 2020
Why in News
• In a historic move to further boost Prime Minister’s call for ‘Self-reliant India’, Ministry of Defense has offered four projects of Indian Industry for design and development under Make-I category of Defense Acquisition Process (DAP) 2020 Is.
• Financial assistance will be provided to the industry for prototype development of these projects. Following is the list of projects which have been given ‘In-principle Approval’ (AIP) by the Collegiate Committee of the Ministry of Defence:
o Indian Air Force: Communication equipment (routers, switches, encryptors, VoIP phones and their software) with Indian security protocols
o Indian Air Force: Airborne Electro Optical Pod with Ground-Based System
o Indian Air Force: Airborne Stand-off Jammer
o Indian Army: Indian Light Tank
• This is the first time since the launch of industry-friendly DAP-2020 that Indian industry has been involved in the development of big ticket platforms like light tanks and communication equipment with Indian security protocols.
• In addition, AIP has also been awarded for the following five projects under the Make-II process funded by the industry:-
o Indian Air Force: Full Speed Simulator for Apache Helicopter
o Indian Air Force: Full Speed Simulator for Chinook Helicopter
o Indian Air Force: Wearable Robotic Devices for Aircraft Maintenance
o Indian Army: Integrated Surveillance and Targeting System for Mechanized Forces
o Indian Army: Autonomous Combat Vehicle
• Projects under ‘Make-II’ category mainly include prototype development of equipment/systems/platforms or their upgrades or their sub-systems/sub-assemblies/assemblies/components for import substitution/innovative solutions, prototypes of which No government funding will be provided for development purposes.
• Indigenous development of these projects in the country will help in leveraging the design capabilities of the Indian defense industry and also help India establish itself as a design giant in these technologies.
GS PAPER III
Climate Change 2022 Impact, Adaptation and Sensitivity
Why in News
• The Intergovernmental Committee on Climate Change (IPCC), in its latest report released on 28 February 2022, warned that the continuing deteriorating climate situation is threatening food security in South Asia.
• Due to climate change, there is an increasing risk of flood and drought conditions in India and Pakistan.
• The second volume of the IPCC Working Group-II report on ‘Climate Change 2022 Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability’ states that with climate change, threats to agriculture and food systems in Asia will increase. This will have different effects on the whole region.
• The report said that for example in South Asia, the risk of food security is increasing due to severe climatic conditions.
• Its biggest impact will be on agriculture based economies like India and Pakistan.
• The report warned that climate change would adversely affect fisheries, marine life and crop yields.
• It states that rice production in India may decline by 10 percent to 30 percent, while maize production may decline by 25 to 70 percent if the estimated temperature rises by one degree Celsius to four degrees Celsius.
• Due to climate change and global warming, the number of such insects is increasing rapidly, which is called Golden Apple Snail. It will stop rice production in India, Bangladesh, Vietnam, Thailand, Myanmar, China, Indonesia, Philippines and Japan.
• In 2019 alone, more than 4 million people were displaced due to disasters in Bangladesh, China, India and the Philippines due to constant climate change. The possibility of severe natural disasters coming to India and Pakistan has become very high. This will have a bad effect on the food and agriculture based economy of both the countries.
• Due to climate change, many species of organisms are also ending. Due to the ever-increasing global warming, there is a possibility of increasing the risk of forest fires in Central Asia, Russia, China and India.
GS PAPER III
Kakrapar Nuclear Power Plant-3
Why in News
• Prime Minister congratulated the nuclear scientists on 22 July 2020 on the return of Kakrapar Nuclear Power Plant-3 to normal operating condition and said that this indigenous nuclear plant is a proud example of Make in India campaign. At the same time, it is also a beginning for many such achievements in the future, he added.
• This congratulation given by Prime Minister Narendra Modi also matters because the reactor-3 of this power station is completely indigenous.
• This is a huge success of the Make in India project. The return of this power plant to normal operating condition is an indication that the plant is now ready for power generation.
• India’s largest reactor
• The normal operation of this 700 MW power plant located in Gujarat is an indication that the plant is now ready for power generation. It is the single largest reactor in the country.
• This indigenously designed 700 MWE KAPP-3 nuclear plant is a proud example of Make in India.
• After the nuclear reactor becomes operational, India has stood in the line of countries which have nuclear power technology.
• India has developed a three-stage nuclear program. It has developed a three-stage nuclear program based on a closed fuel cycle, where the fuel used in one stage is reprocessed to produce fuel for the next stage.
• This 700 MW E plant, built in India, has been developed and operated by Nuclear Power Corporation of India (NPCIL).
• The 700 MWe KAPP-3 reactor is the third phase of this nuclear power station. This is a heavy water reactor plant, which has got the status of best power station in India.
• The KAPP-3 reactor is the largest heavy water reactor in the country, which has been built indigenously. In this, natural uranium will be used as fuel. Till now the largest heavy water reactor was in Tarapur, Maharashtra. It is of 540 MWE.
Kakrapar Atomic Power Plant
• Kakrapar Atomic Power Plant is a nuclear power plant in India. The Kakrapar Nuclear Power Plant is located on the banks of the Tapti River, 80 km from the city of Surat, Gujarat.
• The plant also has two more stations of 220 MW E, KAPS-1 and KAPS-2. The first plant was commissioned in the year 1993 and the second in the year 1995.
• The third plant was commissioned in June 2010, which has just been completed and has started functioning. The Government of India plans to increase its nuclear power power from 6780 MWe to 22,480 MWe by the year 2031. This will give the country a major source of nuclear energy.