• Why in News
• Hoysala temples of Belur, Halebid and Somanathapura in Karnataka have been included as India’s nomination for consideration as World Heritage for the year 2022-2023.
• main point
• These sacred monuments of the Hoysalas are on the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) tentative list since April 15, 2014 and represent one of the highest points of human creative genius and rich historical and cultural heritage of India. also testify to the legacy.
• Now the first step is to submit the required forms to the World Heritage Center which will conduct a technical examination. Shri Vishal V Sharma, India’s Permanent Representative to UNESCO has formally submitted the nomination to Mr. Lazare Eloundou, Director of UNESCO, World Heritage, today, January 31, 2022.
• Once the forms are submitted, UNESCO will contact back in early March. This will be followed by a local assessment in September/October 2022 and consideration of the dossier in July/August 2023.
Channakeshava Temple, Belur
Keshav Temple, Somnathpur
• These three Hoysala temples are protected monuments of the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) and hence will be protected and maintained by ASI.
• The State Government will ensure the conservation of State Protected Monuments located around these three monuments so that all these monuments are linked with the visual integrity of a single place.
• The State Government’s District Master Plan will also cover the buffer of all monuments and form an integrated management plan.
• The State Government will also specifically look into the issues of traffic management around the designated property.
• The sacred group of Hoysalas, built in the 12th–13th centuries and represented here by the three components of Belur, Halebid and Somanathapura, testifies to the creativity and skill of the Hoysala artists and architects under which such excellence has been achieved since then. Creation of masterpieces never seen before.
• Hoysala architects used their in-depth knowledge of temple architecture acquired from different regions of India to enhance their skills.
• A basic Dravidian morphology has been used in the Hoysala temples, but there are clear and strong influences of the Bhumija system widely used in central India, the Nagara tradition of northern and western India and the Carnatic Dravidian system supported by the Kalyani Chalukyas.
• So the Hoysala architects thought of the existing constructions in other temple types and after liberally adopting them and making due modifications, they mixed these styles with their own special innovations.
• The culmination of all this was the emergence of a completely innovative ‘Hoysala temple’ style.
GS PAPER II
World neglected tropical diseases day
Why in News
• The 3rd World Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTD) Day was observed yesterday i.e. on 30th January, 2022.
• India joins a group of nearly 40 other countries by lighting up the iconic New Delhi Railway Station in purple and orange colors in a significant moment to highlight the commitment of the global community to end NTDs.
• It is one of the busiest railway stations in the country in terms of number of trains and passenger movement.
• National Vector Borne Disease Control Program (NCVBDC) organized a virtual event to celebrate World NTD Day.
• NTDs are generally caused by a variety of pathogens. These include viruses, bacteria, parasites, fungi, and toxins.
• They affect more than 170 million people globally. These are “neglected” by developed countries almost missing from the global health agenda and being linked to stigma and social exclusion.
• In line with the commitment to end NTDs, iconic sites and monuments were illuminated in Jharkhand, Gujarat and Karnataka as well.
GS PAPER II
Services Sector in Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
Why in News
• The Union Minister of Finance and Corporate Affairs, Smt. Nirmala Sitharaman, while presenting the Economic Survey 2021-22 in Parliament, said that the contribution of the services sector to India’s GDP is more than 50 percent.
• The review also noted that the services sector also registered a gradual improvement during the first half of the current financial year.
• The Survey said, “The overall growth in the service sector was 10.8 percent y-o-y during the first half of 2021-22.”
• The GVA of the overall services sector is expected to grow by 8.2 percent in the year 2021-22. However, the Economic Survey emphasizes that the spread of the Omicron variant is expected, especially in those areas in the near future. There is likely to be some degree of uncertainty in those that require human interaction.
FDI inflows in the service sector
• The Economic Survey states that the services sector has been the largest recipient of FDI inflows in India.
• The services sector received equity inflows of $16.73 billion during the first half of 2021-22.
• The review noted, ‘Financial, business7 business, outsourcing, R&D, courier, education sub-sectors along with technology testing and analysis recorded strong FDI inflows’.
Business in the service sector
• The Economic Survey has highlighted that India has a prominent place in global service exports. It remained in the top 10 service exporting countries in the year 2020.
• Its share in global commercial services exports increased from 3.4 percent in 2019 to 4.1 percent in 2020.
• The Economic Survey said, ‘The impact of the Kovid-19 induced global lockdown on India’s services exports was less severe than on merchandise exports’. Despite the impact of 19, gross exports of services grew in double figures, supported by software exports, trading and transportation services.
• As a result, net exports of services grew by 22.8 per cent in the first half of FY 2021-22.
Sub-region wise performance
• IT-BPM (Information Technology-Business Process Management) Sector
• The Economic Survey describes IT-BPM services as a major segment of India’s service sector. IT-BPM revenue (other than e-commerce) grew by 2.26 per cent year-on-year to reach $194 billion adding 1.38 lakh employees during 2020-21, as per provisional estimates of NASSCOM.
• IT services have a strong share (>51%) under the IT-BPM sector. The Economic Survey states that during the last year, other. Several policy initiatives were taken to drive innovation and technology adoption in the sector including Service Provider Regulations, Telecom Sector Reforms and Consumer Protection (E-Commerce) Rules 2020.
• This will expand access to talent, increase employment generation and propel the sector to the next level of growth and innovation, the review suggests.
Start-up and Patents
• It has been told in the Economic Survey that there has been a significant increase in the number of start-ups in India in the last 6 years. Most of these start-ups are related to the service sector. Till January 10, 2022, the government has recognized more than 61,400 start-ups in India.
• Further, the review states that a record 44 start-ups in India reached unicorn status in 2021. The Economic Survey also noted that intellectual property, especially patents, is the key to a knowledge-based economy.
• ‘The number of patents filed in India has increased from 39,400 in 2010-11 to 58,502 in 2020-21 and the number of patents granted in India has increased from 7,509 to 28,391 during the same period.’
• The Economic Survey states that the tourism sector is the major contributor to GDP growth, foreign exchange earnings and employment in general.
• The COVID-19 pandemic has had a debilitating impact on global travel and tourism, including in India.
• The Economic Survey has suggested that the resumption of international tourism is largely a coordinated effort between countries in terms of travel restrictions, harmonized safety and security protocols and effective communication to help restore consumer confidence. Will depend on the response.
• The review states that special international flights are being operated under the Vande Bharat Mission, which is currently in its 15th phase and has carried 63.55 lakh passengers.
Port, Shipping and Waterway Services
• The Economic Survey states that the development of ports is important for the economy. Ports handle about 90 percent of import-export cargo and 70 percent by value.
• The Survey states that the total cargo capacity of all ports has increased to 1,246.86 million tonnes per annum (MTPA) by March 2021 as against 1052.23 MTPA in March 2014.
• • Port traffic has also increased in the year 2021-22 with a growth of 10.16 per cent during April-November 2021 after being affected by the constraints caused by COVID-19 in the year 2020-21.
• • The Sagarmala program aimed at promoting port based development in the country has also been mentioned in the review. At present, a total of 802 projects worth Rs 5.53 lakh crore are part of this programme.
• The Economic Survey states that the Indian space program has developed significantly since its inception in the 1960s.
• Capabilities have been developed in all domains including space assets including a fleet of satellites to meet the diverse needs of the society, indigenously manufactured space transport systems related to the space sector.
• The review said that the government made various reforms in the space sector in the year 2020, envisaging private sector participation in providing space-based services.
• These reforms include empowering New Space India Limited (NSIL) and changing the existing supply based model to demand based model, creation of an independent nodal agency i.e. Indian National Center for Space Promotion and Authority (IN-SPACE) under the Department of Space. And to provide a predictable, forward-looking, clear and efficient regulatory framework for space activities in the country.
GS PAPER III
Why in News
• The Union Minister of Finance and Corporate Affairs, Smt. Nirmala Sitharaman, while presenting the Union Budget 2022-23, announced a new scheme, Pradhan Mantri Development Initiative for Northeast-PM-Divine, here.
• The Finance Minister said that PM-Divine will be implemented through the North-Eastern Council. An initial allocation of Rs 1,500 crore will be made for this new scheme.
• This allocation is for strengthening infrastructure and funding social development projects based on the needs of the Northeast, in line with the spirit of PM Gatishakti.
• The Minister further explained that it will enable livelihood activities for youth and women and fill the gaps in various sectors.
Preliminary list of projects under PM Divine-
1. No. Name of the Project Total Expected Cost (Rs. in Crore)
2. Establishment of dedicated services for the management of Pediatric and Adult Hemolymphoid Cancer in North East India, Guwahati (Multi-State) : 129
3. Nectar Livelihood Improvement Project (Multi-State) : 67
4. Promoting Scientific Organic Agriculture in the North East (Multi-State) : 45
5. Construction of Aizawl By-pass on the western side : 500
6. Gap Funding for Passenger Ropeway System for Pelling to Sanga-Choling in West Sikkim : 64
7. Gap funding for eco-friendly ropeway (cable car) from Dhapar to Bhaledhunga in South Sikkim : 58
8. Pilot Project for Construction of Bamboo Link Road at various places in different districts of Mizoram State 100
9. Others (to be identified) : 537
• It will not be a substitute for existing central or state schemes. Central Ministries can submit their candidate projects but priority will be given to the projects submitted by the States.
GS PAPER III
Ease of living
Why in New
• This budget aspires to lay the foundation for the next 25 years of Amrit Kaal – India 75 to 100 years and give a blue print to accelerate the economy.
• The Union Finance and Corporate Affairs Minister Smt. Nirmala Sitharaman introduced this approach while presenting the Union Budget 2022-23 in the Parliament. He announced the next launch of Ease of Living under Amrit Kaal.
• The Finance Minister said that this new phase of Ease of Living will be guided by an approach involving the following –
Active participation of states
• Digitization of human processes and interventions
• Integration of central and state level systems through information technology bridges.
• This will help in creating, modernizing, and eliminating overlapping compliances, creating a single-point access to all citizen-centric services.
Issuance of Chip Embedded e-Passport:
• The Finance Minister announced that the work on using embedded chip and future technology will be started in 2022-23. This will facilitate citizens to travel abroad.
Modernization of Building Bye-laws and Town/Urban Planning
• Modernization of Building Bye-laws, Town Planning Schemes (TPS) and Transit Oriented Development was proposed by the Finance Minister to improve urban planning.
• This will help improve access for people living and working near major transit systems.
• In this regard, the Finance Minister also said that the Central Government’s financial assistance for Major Transit Projects and AMRUT Yojana will be facilitated in the preparation of Action Plans and Town Planning Plans (TOD) and Transport Oriented Development (TPS) by the States. Benefit will be availed for implementation.
Establishment of Centers of Excellence in Urban Planning:
• Five existing educational institutions in different sectors to be designated as Centers of Excellence to develop India specific knowledge in urban planning and design and provide proven training in these areas.
• The Finance Minister also informed the House that Rs.250 crore due funds would be provided to each such centre.
• battery swap policy
• Considering the lack of space in urban areas, the Finance Minister announced a proposal to formulate a battery swap policy and interoperable standards for large scale installation of charging stations.
• He said that the private sector would be encouraged to develop sustainable and innovative business models for battery or energy as a service.
GS PAPER III
Why in News
• The Union Minister of Finance and Corporate Affairs, Smt. Nirmala Sitharaman while presenting the Union Budget 2022-23 in Parliament today announced the implementation of Digital Rupee, which will be launched by the Reserve Bank of India from 2022-23.
• Central Bank Digital Currency (CBDC) will give a big boost to the digital economy. The Finance Minister said that a more efficient and cheaper currency management system will be seen with digital currency.
• Digital currency will use blockchain and other technologies.
• Digital banking, digital payments and fintech innovations have seen rapid growth in the country in recent years.
• The Government is promoting these sectors on a regular basis to ensure that the benefits of digital banking reach each and every region of the country in a user friendly manner.
• Moving towards this goal and celebrating 75 years of its independence, it is proposed that 75 Digital Banking Units (DBUS) will be set up by scheduled commercial banks in 75 districts of the country.
Anytime, Anywhere, Post Office Savings:
• In another important announcement, the Finance Minister said that 1.5 lakh post offices will be brought under 100% core banking system in 2022, thereby enabling financial inclusion and access to accounts through net banking, mobile banking, ATMs and postal services. The facility will also facilitate online transfer between Ghar accounts and bank accounts.
• It will be helpful for farmers and senior citizens especially in rural areas and will also enable interoperability and financial inclusion.
• Digital Payments:
• The Finance Minister assured that the fiscal support for the ‘Digital Payment Ecosystem’ announced in the last budget will continue in 2022-23 as well.
• This will encourage more adoption of digital payments.
• Under this, the focus will also be on promoting the use of payment platform, which is economical and user friendly.