GS Paper 1: Art & Culture
Prelims exam level: Temple Architecture
Mains exam Level: Not Much
• Jagannath Temple is a very big temple and covers an area of 37000 m2.
• It is surrounded by a high fortified wall 6.1 m high is known as Meghanada Pacheri.
• The main portion of the temple is also surrounded by a wall known as Kurma Bheda.
• The temple is built in Rekha Deula style and has four distinct sectional structures, namely –
1. Deula, Vimana or Garba griha (Sanctum sanctorum) where the triad deities are lodged on the ratnavedi (Throne of Pearls)
2. Mukhashala (Frontal porch)
3. Nata mandir/Natamandapa, which is also known as the Jagamohan (Audience Hall/Dancing Hall)
4. Bhoga Mandapa (Offerings Hall)
About Jagannath Rath Yatra
• Ratha Jatra, the Festival of Chariots of Lord Jagannatha is celebrated every year at Puri, the temple town in Orissa, on the east coast of India.
• It involves a public procession with a chariot with deities Jagannath (Vishnu avatar), BalaBhadra (his brother), Subhadra (his sister) and Sudarshana Chakra (his weapon) on a ratha, a wooden deula-shaped chariot.
• The huge, colourfully decorated chariots, are drawn by hundreds and thousands of devotees on the bada danda, the grand avenue to the Gundicha temple, some two miles away to the North.
• It attracts over a million Hindu pilgrims who join the procession each year.
GS Paper 1: Art & Culture
Prelims exam level: Ashadhi Bij and other Traditional New years
Mains exam Level: Not Much
Why in News
On the occasion of Ashadhi Bij, the Prime Minister extended greetings to the people of the Kutchi community and wished for peace, happiness and good health in everyone’s lives.
• Ashadhi Bij is the second day of Shukla paksha of Aashaadha month, of the Hindu calendar.
• It is associated with the beginning of rains in the Kutch region. Kutchi community of Gujarat celebrate their new year on this day.
Other traditional New Years celebrated in India
1. Chaitra Shukla Pratipada
• It marks the beginning of the new year of the Vikram Samvat also known as the Vedic (Hindu) calendar.
• Vikram Samvat is based on the day when the emperor Vikramaditya defeated Sakas, invaded Ujjain and called for a new era.
• It is celebrated as the Indian Thanksgiving Day by farmers.
• It also has religious significance for the Sikhs community as the foundation of the Khalsa Panth was laid on this day by Guru Gobind Singh.
3. Gudi Padwa and Ugadi
• Celebrated in the month of Chaitra Shukla Pratipada as per the Hindu Lunar Calendar.
• Deccan region including Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra.
• It is the lunar New Year that is celebrated in Kashmir.
• It falls on the very first day of the Chaitra Navratras.
5. Sajibu Cheiraoba
• It is celebrated by Meiteis (an ethnic group in Manipur) which is observed on the first day of Manipur lunar month Shajibu, which falls in the month of April every year.
6. Cheti Chand
• It is celebrated by Sindhi community. Chaitra month is called ‘Chet’ in Sindhi.
• The day commemorates the birth anniversary of Ishta Deva Uderolal/Jhulelal, the patron saint of Sindhis.
• It is celebrated three times a year.
• Rongali or Bohag Bihu is observed in April. Kongali or Kati Bihu observed in October and Bhogali or Magh Bihu observed in January.
• Rongali or Bohag Bihu is the Assamese new year and spring festival.
• The Rongali Bihu coincides with Sikh New Year- Baisakhi.
• Losoong also known as Namsoong is the Sikkimese New Year.
• It is usually the time when the farmers rejoice and celebrate their harvest.
• It is mostly celebrated in the month of December every year with traditional gaiety and colour both by the Lepchas and Bhutias.
Pradhan Mantri Formalisation of Micro Food Processing Enterprises (PMFME) Scheme
GS Paper 2: Government Schemes and interventions
Prelims exam level: PMFME Scheme
Mains exam Level: Food Processing and Related Industries in India
Why in News
The Scheme has completed is 2 years
About the Scheme
• It is a centrally sponsored scheme
o The expenditure under the scheme would be shared in 60:40 ratio between Central and State Governments, in 90:10 ratio with North Eastern and Himalayan States, 60:40 ratio with UTs with legislature and 100% by Centre for other UTs.
• Launched by the Ministry of Food Processing Industries, Government of India under the Aatmanirbhar Bharat Abhiyan.
• The Scheme aims to augment the existing individual micro-enterprises in the unorganized segment of the food processing industry and formalize two lakh micro food processing enterprises with special focus on supporting groups such as Farmer Producer Organizations (FPOs), Self-Help Groups (SHGs) engaged in Agri-food processing sector, inter-alia, by providing:
a. Seed capital @ Rs. 40,000/- per SHG member for working capital and purchase of small tools
b. Support to food processing enterprises through credit-linked capital subsidy (35% of the eligible project cost with a maximum ceiling of Rs.10 lakh per unit)
c. Credit linked grant of 35% for capital investment to FPOs/ SHGs/ producer cooperatives.
d. Support for marketing & branding to micro units
e. Training and capacity building
One District One Product (ODOP) Approach of the scheme:
• ODOP for the scheme will provide the framework for value chain development and alignment of support infrastructure. There may be more than one cluster of ODOP products in one district.
o There may be a cluster of ODOP products consisting of more than one adjacent district in a State.
• The States would identify food products for districts keeping in view the existing clusters and availability of raw material.
• The ODOP could be a perishable produce based or cereal based or a food item widely produced in an area. E.g., mango, potato, pickle, millet-based products, fisheries, poultry, etc.
Financial Services Institutions Bureau (FSIB)
GS Paper 3: Indian Economy
Prelims exam level: FSIB, BBB, ACC
Mains exam Level: Banking Reforms
Why in News
The government has transformed Banks Board Bureau (BBB), the headhunter for directors of state-owned banks and financial institutions, into Financial Services Institutions Bureau (FSIB) by making some amendments.
Need of such amendment
The amendments were required as the Delhi High Court in its order last year said the BBB is not a competent body to select the general managers and directors of state-owned general insurers.
What is the News?
• The Appointments Committee of the Cabinet (ACC) has asked the Department of Financial Services to carry out necessary modifications in the Nationalized Banks (Management and Miscellaneous Provisions) Scheme of 1970/1980 with the approval of Finance Minister, and then notify the government resolution for establishing FSIB.
• Financial Services Institutions Bureau (FSIB) will act as a single entity for making recommendations for appointments of whole-time directors and non-executive chairman of banks and financial institutions.
Bank Board Bureau
• Banks Board Bureau is a self-governing autonomous body of the Central Government. It is an advisory authority comprising eminent professionals and officials to improve the management of public sector banks.
• Banks Board Bureau headquarter is at the Central Office of Reserve Bank of India, Mumbai and started its functioning on April 1, 2016.
• BBB was a part of the seven-point strategy of the Indradhanush Mission aimed at revamping the Public Sector Banks. It is an autonomous body of officials and distinguished professionals for the PSBs (Public Sector Banks).
• The Bureau is a not-for-profit autonomous body that was initially expected to meet its expenses with upfront support from the Reserve Bank of India and thereafter distribute the expenses among the PSBs
Appointments Committee of the Cabinet (ACC)
• The Appointments Committee of the Cabinet (ACC) decides appointments to several top posts under the Government of India.
• The committee is composed of the Prime Minister of India (ex-officio Chairman) and the Minister of Home Affairs.