Bhutan establishes formal ties with Germany Paper:

Mains: G.S. II International Relations

Why in news?

Bhutan announced on Wednesday that it had established diplomatic relations with Germany, increasing the restricted number of capitals that Thimphu has formal ties with to 63 states and the EU.

Key details

  • With the establishment of diplomatic relations, the two countries expressed the desire to further deepen the friendship and cooperation between the two countries.
  • Germany did not plan to set up an embassy in Thimphu at present, and would conduct it’s relations through its embassy in Delhi from across the border.
  • Indian officials said that the GOI had noted this development and we are aware that the two countries had established consular relations in July 2000.
  • Since 1949, when Bhutan signed a treaty of peace, friendship and cooperation with India, keep the two countries closely engaged on all foreign policy issues.
  • Bhutan has been historically cautious about establishing ties with other countries.
  • Until 2007, when Bhutan conducted it’s first election, it had formal relations with just 22 countries, mostly donor countries like Japan, Australia and Nordic nations.
  • Bhutan made a firm decision not to open ties with any of the permanent five members of the UNSC, despite many requests from them.


Allots Rs 2,000-cr. for infra funding Paper:

Mains: G.S. III Economy

Why in news? 

The Cabinet approved the infusion of Rs 6,000 crore as equity into a new sent platform to raise up to Rs 1.1 lakh crore for financing infrastructure projects by 2025.

Key details

  • This equity capital will be provided to the debt platform sponsored by the National Infrastructure and Investment Fund.
  • NIIF is India’s first sovereign wealth fund set up by the Government of India in 2015.
  • NIIF, a 40,000 crores fund, was set up in 2015 for funding commercially viable greenfield, brownfield and stalled infrastructure projects.
  • Composition – 49% by Indian govt. and Rest is to be raised from third-party investors such as sovereign wealth funds, insurance and pension funds, endowments, etc.
  • Areas of Investment – Energy, transportation, housing, water, waste management and other infrastructure-related sectors in India.


Anti – dumping duty Paper:

Mains: G.S. III Economy

Why in news?

The textile and clothing sector has urged the centre to remove anti – dumping duty on viscose fibre and address problems related to inverted duty structure in man made fibre segment for the industry. 

Key details

  • Dumping is a term used in the context of international trade. It’s when a country or company exports a product at a price that is lower in the foreign importing market than the price in the exporter’s domestic market.
  • Because dumping typically involves substantial export volumes of a product, it often endangers the financial viability of the product’s manufacturers or producers in the importing nation.
  • An anti-dumping duty is a protectionist tariff that a domestic government imposes on foreign imports that it believes are priced below fair market value. For protection, many countries impose stiff duties on products they believe are being dumped in their national market, undercutting local businesses and markets.
  • Countervailing duty (CVD) is an additional import duty imposed on imported products (by the importing country) when such products enjoy benefits like export subsidies and tax concessions in the country of their origin (ie., where it is produced and exported).
  • The objective of counter bailing duty is to nullify the price advantage enjoyed by an imported product.

RT – PCR Test Paper:

Maine: G.S. III Science and Technology

Why in news?

As COVID-19 cases keeps on increasing, once again the need of RT-PCR tests has occurred and states have to boost infrastructure to increase testing.

Key details

  • RT-PCR is a laboratory technique combining reverse transcription of RNA into DNA and amplification of specific DNA targets using polymerase chain reaction. It is primarily used to measure the amount of a specific RNA.
  • RT-PCR test detects the virus and the antibody tests, which use blood, detect the body’s response to the virus. A positive result in the antibody test tells that the person was exposed to the virus.
  • Real-time RT-PCR setup usually goes through 35 cycles, which means that by the end of the process, around 35 billion new copies of the sections of viral DNA are created from each strand of the virus present in the sample.